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Type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity: Concordance for type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in male twins

Cardiovascular risk is associated with the development of insulin resistance even before frank hyperglycemia exists.

William Murphy
Tuesday, March 20, 2018
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  • In fact, when only the newly diagnosed cases were included in the analysis in the cross-sectional study, the value of r 2 0. To circumvent the lack of statistical power of single marker tests, several collapsing or burden methods that simultaneously analyse multiple rare variants are applied [].

  • Moreover, it is essential for monitoring the course of weight reduction, which is part of every effective anti-obesity treatment.

  • Find articles by Henning Beck-Nielsen. Hark, A.

  • GWASs to discover the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes and obesity Untilgenetic mapping of complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity was primarily achieved by genetic linkage analyses or candidate gene association studies, both of which have implicit shortcomings related to their design, which limit their application.

Introduction

In contrast, the heavier twin had a higher risk of incident diabetes. Our findings clearly showed that the role played by the studied factors obesity, PH, and genes in T2D obeeity is not the same across all age groups in Mexico. Although thus far the majority of GWASs have been performed on European individuals, a number of important studies of other ethnicities are emerging. Clement K, Vaisse C, Lahlou N et al A mutation in the human leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction. Rosengren AH, Braun M, Mahdi T et al Reduced insulin exocytosis in human pancreatic beta-cells with gene variants linked to type 2 diabetes.

Genotypes and PH were classified as 0, 1, or 2, according to type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity number of risk alleles RA and the number of parents with T2D. The diabehes line indicates the overall effect in the total sample. As discussed above, common genetic variants unanimously impose modest risk increments on type 2 diabetes and adiposity. This result contrasts with the important role attributed to obesity in the aetiology of T2D, and the discrepancy may be related to the number of years with the disease. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries.

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For the analysis, the diagnosis of T2D or the control was considered the dependent variable, and the values of the single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs genotypes, PH, and BMI were considered as the explanatory variables. Reprints and Permissions. Nature— These results suggest a causal link between obesity and the risk of diabetes, independent of genetic influence. Babyak, M. Planning for Sick Days. Race can also play a role.

Wilkin TJ. Insulin sensitivity is determined by another critical factor, which is body fat distribution. The accelerator obesity weight doabetes as the missing link between type I and type II diabetes. The index twins of discordant pairs had been more obese than those of concordant pairs, suggesting that obesity plays a more important role in those with weaker genetic susceptibility for diabetes. Weight reduction can be achieved via different weight loss strategies, including lifestyle intervention diet and exercisepharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes.

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In conclusion, twin status is evidently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, with elderly twins exhibiting a higher degree of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance and most importantly a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with singletons. The r 2 obtained with the adjusted BMI was 0. No interactions were found among the factors.

Are obesity-related metabolic risk factors modulated by stueies degree of insulin resistance in adolescents? Obesity Overweight studies obesity obesity are defined by an excess accumulation of adipose tissue to an extent that impairs both physical and psychosocial health and well-being. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Fat storage and mobilization are other important factors causing insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity also differs completely in lean individuals because of differences in body fat distribution. Furthermore, abdominal fat is considered more lipolytic than subcutaneous fat, and it also does not respond easily to the antilipolytic action of insulin, which makes intra-abdominal fat more important in causing insulin resistance, and thus diabetes.

However, since both obesity and, especially, type 2 diabetes are rather late-onset diseases, recruiting such families stuxies challenging. If such variants cluster within specific genes they may be detectable in large-scale sequencing studies of unrelated individuals, although locus heterogeneity will severely impede detection. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis. One additional MZ twin cotwin to a twin participating in the baseline — study was included in the follow-up study.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Was the historic contribution of Spain to the Mexican gene pool partially responsible for the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexican-origin populations? This difference was mainly due to the greater difference in the contribution of genes in younger patients Fig. It is not surprising that the BMI contributes independently from PH and genes to T2D in Mexico, specifically because it is an environmental factor that does not usually depend on family or genetic factors, but rather on poor eating and lifestyle habits. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for and

The association between type 1 diabetes and weight gain was first investigated by Baum et al 20 in References 1. Abstract Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease affecting adults and children worldwide. Diabetes mellitus DM is a chronic disorder that can alter carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.

Int J Clin Pract. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. Obes Rev. Vitamin D and type 1 diabetes mellitus: state of the art. Both type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with insulin resistance. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Publication types Review.

Video abstract

Publication types Review. Both type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with insulin resistance. Vitamin D and type 1 diabetes mellitus: state of the art. Learn More. Diabetes Care.

Please review our privacy policy. In order to analyse the relationship of genetic factors and the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of Type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we compared body mass index BMI and other parameters in 71 monozygotic and 17 dizygotic twins MZT and DZT with Type 2 diabetes, and analysed the relationship of maximal BMI in the past max BMI with the concordance and discordance for diabetes. Physiol Rev. If the glucose levels require stability, changes in insulin sensitivity must be matched by a relatively opposite change in circulating insulin levels. Furthermore, as young children gain more weight, diabetes can be diagnosed earlier. Fat storage and mobilization are other important factors causing insulin resistance. The association between type 1 diabetes and weight gain was first investigated by Baum et al 20 in

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The prevalence is escalating significantly in many nations worldwide. Insulin sensitivity is determined by another critical factor, rype is body fat distribution. These therapies type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity promote additional weight gain and further trigger the deterioration of blood glucose control. The cornerstone factor affecting insulin insensitivity is the release of NEFAs. The effect of lipotoxic increases in plasma NEFA levels and the rise of glucose levels might produce a more harmful effect known as glucolipotoxicity. Diabetes and obesity are chronic disorders that are on the rise worldwide.

Suggested study and analysis designs of genetic studies of variants across the allele frequency spectrum. Obesith 1. Scott RA, Lagou V, Welch RP et al Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways. Although the NDR may not be complete, there is no reason to suspect any dissimilar or skewed recordings between twins and singletons.

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When we stratified the data by gender, no differences were found when comparing each gender with the entire sample. The mean age of all cases was Maher B Personal genomes: the case of the missing heritability.

While detailed, type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity statistically powered studies of the genetic influence on treatment atudies are still lacking, lessons from monogenic metabolic disease suggest that the identification of genetically homogenous groups may lead to improvements in individualised treatment [ ]. Two recent studies have increased the number of loci to 19, identifying 15 non-overlapping loci associated with clinical obesity among children and adults [ 5455 ]. Citations This evaluation can be accomplished by comparing the risk of disease in twin pairs that are discordant for obesity. However, there is a mouse study that found that the deletion of the gene WFS1 increases the risk of T2D only in male mice

Diabdtes Research Methods 39— Am J Med. Chatterjee, R. Barquera, S. A pooled analysis of five population-based studies. Scientists planned to sequence the genomes of 2, participants from a number of different ethnic groups. Also referred to as gene—gene interaction Exome The protein coding part of the human genome.

Overweight and obesity are defined by an excess accumulation of adipose tissue to an extent that impairs both physical and psychosocial health and well-being. In conclusion, the comparison of the max BMI in twins suggests that the degree of diabetogenic role of obesity varies in heterogeneous genetic background. Metabolic syndrome among Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic populations. Cardiovascular risk is associated with the development of insulin resistance even before frank hyperglycemia exists.

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Abstract Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year and projections for Weight reduction can be achieved via different weight loss strategies, including lifestyle intervention diet and exercisepharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery.

The risk of incident diabetes was increased in the heavier twins in most subgroups eFigure 1 in the Supplement and rose with increasing BMI dissimilarity within each pair eFigure 2 in the Supplement. This means that lifestyle interventions that promote weight loss may be helpful in reducing the risk of diabetes, but might not have a great impact on the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases or death. Deep sequencing indicates that the depth of the process is many times larger than the length of the sequence under study. Statistical methods. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27, participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. Genome-wide significant associations for six metabolic traits are shown.

Insulin resistance is indeed an important factor in disease process. External link. The concurrent accumulation of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat explains the association between insulin resistance and plasma leptin concentrations: distinct metabolic effects of two fat compartments. Intra-abdominal fat is more related to the genes that secrete proteins and the specific types of proteins responsible for the production of energy. Mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans. The association between type 1 diabetes and weight gain was first investigated by Baum et al 20 in The prevalence is escalating significantly in many nations worldwide.

PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. The median BMI decreased fwin the years of having T2D, similar to how it decreased in the cases of the main case-control study. The biggest difference in the effect of genes between men and women is observed in the early presentation of the disease, before menopause, suggesting that a hormonal effect may protect or delay the impact of genes on T2D development in women.

In MZT, diabetic twins of discordant pairs lbesity significantly more obese at the survey and in the past than index twins of concordant pairs mean BMI: Insulin in those people may be high, yet it is not enough to normalize the level of glycemia. Environmental influences on development of type 2 diabetes and obesity: challenges in personalizing prevention and management. Furthermore, abdominal fat is considered more lipolytic than subcutaneous fat, and it also does not respond easily to the antilipolytic action of insulin, which makes intra-abdominal fat more important in causing insulin resistance, and thus diabetes. Kahn SE. Pancreatic volume and endocrine and exocrine functions in patients with diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children, but it can sometimes also appear in adult age groups, particularly studies obesity those in their late thirties and early forties. Abstract In order to analyse the relationship of genetic factors and the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of Type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we compared body mass index BMI and other parameters in 71 monozygotic and 17 dizygotic twins MZT and DZT with Type 2 diabetes, and analysed the relationship of maximal BMI in the past max BMI with the concordance and discordance for diabetes. Relationship to cardiovascular risk factors: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. To date, the exact mechanism and relationship between type 1 diabetes and obesity remains inconclusive and needs further explanation. Evidence for a hyperbolic function.

The present study was stjdies able to verify that obesity is causally associated with an increased risk of MI or death after consideration of genetic factors. The extent of genetic confounding in these associations is type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity. This evaluation can be accomplished by comparing the risk of disease in twin pairs that are discordant for obesity. Sequencing depth In DNA sequencing, depth refers to the number of times a nucleotide is read during the sequencing process. A more detailed picture of beta cell pathogenesis is now emerging showing the specific impact of individual risk variants through studies of more exact physiological phenotypes and functional molecular genetic studies. Confounders were identified using a theoretical strategy based on a backstep, stepwise MLR model and the change-in-estimate criterion.

More information on genetics If you would like to learn more about the genetics of all forms of diabetes, the National Institutes of Health has published The Genetic Landscape of Obessity. In contrast, when looking at the effect sizes on BMI of SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes, there is no obvious correlation between effects; rather, it seems that most of the type 2 diabetes-associated variants have no impact on BMI per se Fig. In many people, the development of type 1 diabetes seems to take many years. A great diversity of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA ancestry is present in the Mexican mestizo population.

Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Vitamin D levels, microvascular complications, and mortality diabetes twin type 1 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity is determined by another critical factor, which is body fat distribution. Please review our privacy policy. The increased prevalence of obesity these days has drawn attention to the worldwide significance of this problem. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. In order to analyse the relationship of genetic factors and the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of Type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we compared body mass index BMI and other parameters in 71 monozygotic and 17 dizygotic twins MZT and DZT with Type 2 diabetes, and analysed the relationship of maximal BMI in the past max BMI with the concordance and discordance for diabetes.

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The index twins of discordant pairs had been more obese than those of concordant pairs, suggesting that obesity plays a more important role in those with weaker genetic susceptibility for diabetes. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. At the start of this century, million people were estimated to have type 2 diabetes, and this figure is expected to increase to million by Arora S. Vitamin D plays a major role in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 1 diabetes, as recent evidence suggests. Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans.

Kahn SE. The index twins of discordant pairs had been more obese than those of concordant pairs, suggesting that obesity plays a more important role in those with weaker genetic susceptibility for diabetes. These therapies may promote additional weight gain and further trigger the deterioration of blood glucose control. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. For example, insulin resistance is noticed during puberty, in pregnancy, and during the aging process. Video abstract Download video file.

Main Outcomes and Measures The combined primary end point of death or MI and the secondary end point of incident diabetes were evaluated in heavier compared with leaner twins in a co-twin control analysis using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In a subcohort of twin pairs for whom longitudinal data were available, the risk of death or MI was similar in the heavier and leaner groups OR, 0.

Administrative, technical, ohesity material support: P. Smoking habit was classified as never smoked, previous smoking, or currently smoking, and pack-years of smoking were estimated. Twinship influence on morbidity and mortality across the lifespan. You may worry that your children will develop it, too. One comment It may be that it is true, but the most of the people I know who have diabetes are either normal, or even in some cases skinny.

In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. Insulin Resistance. Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children, but it can sometimes also appear in adult age groups, particularly in those in their late thirties and early forties. Evidence for a hyperbolic function. Publication types Review.

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Published : 26 February The rest of the authors declared no competing interests. Most of the genetic variants found in the first GWASs were demonstrated to primarily cause a decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin response [ 3233 ]. Binary logistic regression in Regression Modeling Strategies ed.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes The increased prevalence of obesity these fiabetes has drawn attention to the worldwide significance of this problem. The existence of many new factors — for type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity, the increased prevalence of obesity among all age groups and both sex physical inactivity, poor diet, and urbanization — means that the number of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is rising. Fowler MJ. Obesity and insulin resistance Insulin sensitivity fluctuation occurs across the natural life cycle. The etiology of type 1 diabetes can be explained by damage to the pancreatic cells due to environmental or infectious agents. The major factor in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is considered to be autoimmunity. One of the mechanisms of insulin is its effect as an anabolic hormone that enhances glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle.

However, the MLR model was performed in strata only if the sample size included at least 15 lbesity for each variable introduced into the model 53 and always as in the ULR models using a obesith of 50 54 or cases Genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes: rare variants in a common disease? However, the cross-sectional study, even with this small sample, allowed us to gain an understanding of the age at which patients with T2D are diagnosed, the effect of the BMI and to a lesser extent, the influence of parental history of T2D and genes on the variability of T2D in another sample population of Mexico. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes has a stronger link to family history and lineage than type 1, and studies of twins have shown that genetics play a very strong role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Among twins with higher BMI,

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Failure of this process to take place results in a deregulation of glucose levels and the development of DM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care.

Furthermore, as young children gain more weight, diabetes can be diagnosed earlier. Kasuga M. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Clinical Diabetes.

In MZT, diabetic twins of discordant pairs were significantly more obese at the survey and in the past than index twins of concordant pairs mean BMI: Moreover, the quantity secreted from these omental adipocytes is negatively associated with increased body weight. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes.

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In conclusion, the comparison of the max BMI in twins suggests that the degree of diabetogenic role of obesity varies in heterogeneous genetic background. Moreover, it is essential for monitoring the course of weight reduction, which is part of every effective anti-obesity treatment. Publication types Review.

Porte D. Kahn SE. Video abstract Download video file. Cardiovascular risk is associated with the development of insulin resistance even before frank hyperglycemia exists.

Such developments will take genome sequencing to the population scale, possibly leading to a new understanding of the composite genetic architecture of human complex traits, integrating diverse kinds of genetic variation. After the exclusion, a total of cases and controls remained. All three protocols were performed in accordance with the ethical principles described in the Declaration of Helsinki. Download PDF.

  • For each sorted group we carried out MLR and then calculated the median r 2.

  • Type 2 diabetes has a different pathophysiology and etiology as compared to type 1 diabetes. This is explained by the fact that more weight accelerates insulin resistance, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes in individuals who are predisposed genetically to diabetes.

  • Diabetes Metab.

  • Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Tabassum R, Chauhan G, Dwivedi OP et al Genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes in Indians identifies a new susceptibility locus at 2q

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. The mean age of all cases was Hum Mol Genet R—R For example, type 1 diabetes is dtudies common in people who were breastfed and in those who first ate solid foods at later ages. Age is an important etiological factor in type 2 diabetes and has been shown to play a key role in unmasking the unfavorable metabolic effects associated with adverse fetal environment 13 Data Availability All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this article. Based on the findings of our twin study, the intervention could also have been ineffective due to the primary focus on weight loss.

Furthermore, the cumulative concordance rate for type 2 diabetes to age 84 years exceeds 0. These trends suggest a biological rather than a confounding effect. BMC Public Health PubMed Google Scholar.

Given that these conditions are related to both obesity and CVD, adjustments would, if anything, reduce the relative risk of CVD and death in the leaner twins. Purchase access Subscribe to the journal. Comments By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. The age-adjusted cumulative proband-wise risk at age 84 years, which approximates the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes, was similar in MZ 0. However, obesity contribution was calculated at the time of recruitment and may be underestimated in patients because the BMI decreased linearly with the number of years with the disease.

Olivarius, D. Subjects Predictive markers Type 2 diabetes. Log in menu Manage Account Search. When we stratified the data by gender, no differences were found when comparing each gender with the entire sample.

In order to analyse the relationship of genetic factors and the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of Type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we compared body mass index BMI and other parameters in 71 monozygotic and 17 dizygotic twins MZT and DZT with Type 2 diabetes, and analysed the relationship of maximal BMI in the past max BMI with the concordance and discordance for diabetes. Insulin in those people may be high, yet it is not enough to normalize the level of glycemia. Fat storage and mobilization are other important factors causing insulin resistance. The emerging pandemic of obesity and diabetes: are we doing enough to prevent a disaster? The effect of lipotoxic increases in plasma NEFA levels and the rise of glucose levels might produce a more harmful effect known as glucolipotoxicity.

You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. MZ : 6. These twins were born between and and were identified from military records without regard to disease status. In addition to having diabetes, these people also have thyroid disease and a poorly working adrenal gland—some also have other immune system disorders.

  • However, the causative variant and the molecular mechanism of action have been identified for some loci.

  • Furthermore, as young children gain more weight, diabetes can be diagnosed earlier.

  • As of the beginning of90 genetic loci have been firmly established as type 2 diabetes risk loci Fig. Article Google Scholar.

  • After adjustment for physical activity level, the twin who was smoking had an increased odds of death OR, 2. Sign in to customize your interests Sign in to your personal account.

Similar trends are being noticed worldwide. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. Insulin resistance with lipid abnormalities ie, low levels of high-density lipoprotein, and high levels of low-density lipoprotein type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity triglyceridesdizbetes abnormalities, as well as atherosclerotic risk factors for example, smoking, family history, and hypertension determine the cardiovascular risk in a patient. Are obesity-related metabolic risk factors modulated by the degree of insulin resistance in adolescents? In concordant DZT pairs, index twins with earlier onset of diabetes had been less obese than cotwins mean max BMI, Failure of this process to take place results in a deregulation of glucose levels and the development of DM.

These results indeed support that twin status per se represents a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Risk of MI or Death. Glossary Genomes Project The Genomes Project, launched in Januaryis an international research effort to establish a detailed catalogue of human genetic variation. Looker, H.

Another trigger might be viruses. Pinto, G. Confounders were identified using a theoretical strategy based on a backstep, stepwise MLR model and the change-in-estimate criterion. Diabetologia ; 28 : — [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]. Diabetes Metab.

  • Heid University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. In a subcohort and using conditional logistic regression, birth weight was not associated with the risk of death OR, 0.

  • In an obese individual, the amount of NEFA, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory substances, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance are increased. Fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance: time for a reevaluation.

  • Type 2 diabetes variants disrupt function of SLC16A11 through two distinct mechanisms. These results suggest a causal link between obesity and the risk of diabetes, independent of genetic influence.

  • The existence of such a composite model is supported by a recently reported simulation analysis, the investigators of which concluded that extreme models are unlikely, yet the simulation data were consistent with many models, including those in which rare variants explain either little or most of type 2 diabetes heritability [ ]. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

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J Clin Invest. Boden G. Abstract In order to analyse the relationship studies obesity genetic factors and the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of Type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we compared body mass index BMI and other parameters in 71 monozygotic and 17 dizygotic twins MZT and DZT with Type 2 diabetes, and analysed the relationship of maximal BMI in the past max BMI with the concordance and discordance for diabetes. Substances Anti-Obesity Agents. Adiponectin secretion by omental adipocytes is larger than the amount secreted by subcutaneous-derived adipocytes. Ershow AG. In concordant DZT pairs, index twins with earlier onset of diabetes had been less obese than cotwins mean max BMI,

One of the mechanisms of insulin is its effect as an anabolic hormone that enhances glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, another study has proved that vitamin D deficiency in type 1 diabetes may predict all causes of mortality. Kasuga M. American Diabetes Association Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Both type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with insulin resistance. Molecular basis of insulin resistance and its relation to metabolic syndrome.

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Civil status was classified as married, cohabitant, divorced, widow or widower, single, and living apart. Genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes: rare variants in a common disease?

Correlation of effects of type 2 diabetes-associated loci on type 2 diabetes in relation to effects on BMI and metabolic traits. The r 2 obtained with type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity adjusted BMI was 0. Results Participants and demographic characteristics Of the controls and cases included in the main case-control study, 16 controls and 31 cases were excluded due to the poor quality of their DNA samples. Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more.

Cardiovascular risk is associated with the development of insulin resistance even before frank hyperglycemia exists. Diaebtes is an inverse relationship between body mass index and age at diagnosis. Furthermore, another study has proved that vitamin D deficiency in type 1 diabetes may predict all causes of mortality. Quantification of the relationship between insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in human subjects.

These 9 Type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity were analysed separately in women and men. Of interest, the diversity tyle the mutation rate is influenced by the age of the father at conception of the child [ ]. There was no information about waist circumference, which has been found to be associated with visceral obesity 31 and more strongly related to CVD than BMI. The r 2 values were obtained from Table 5. For replication of molecular and clinical data, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted.

The finding of higher concordance rates among monozygotic MZ compared with dizygotic DZ twins in some 1 — 3 but not all 4 twin studies has been considered as strong evidence of a significant genetic component in type 2 diabetes. Here we review type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity progress in concepts, methodologies and derived outcomes of studies of the genetics of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and we predict some of the directions this research field could take in the near future. Baseline Characteristics of the Monozygotic Twin Cohort. As such, DeCODE Genetics has published a series of reports on the role of rare variants in complex diseases and traits in the Icelandic population based on chip genotyping in large numbers, whole genome sequencing in a subset combined with long-range phasing and genealogy-based imputation [ 15, ]. Weight changes following the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: The impact of recent and past weight history before diagnosis.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Trends Endocrinol Metab. Moreover, it is essential for monitoring the course of weight reduction, which is part of every effective anti-obesity treatment. The existence of many new factors — for example, the increased prevalence of obesity among all age groups and both sex physical inactivity, poor diet, and urbanization — means that the number of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is rising. Disproportionately elevated proinsulin levels reflect the degree of impaired B cell secretory capacity in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Adiponectin secretion by omental adipocytes is larger than the amount secreted by subcutaneous-derived adipocytes. DM is broadly classified under two categories, which include type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

A similar etiology is also responsible for a similar increase in type 1 diabetes. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Insulin sensitivity is determined by another critical factor, which is body fat distribution. Relationship to cardiovascular risk factors: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. If the glucose levels require stability, changes in insulin sensitivity must be matched by a relatively opposite change in circulating insulin levels.

  • Current findings from GWASs seem to be somewhat consistent with this model.

  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Clin Invest.

  • PubMed Google Scholar

  • Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease, at most, only half the time. These findings indicate that some genetic variants may exert general modifying effects on fasting glucose levels in the population, while others have specific thresholds at which the genetic effect sets in, thereby conferring risk of type 2 diabetes without modifying levels of fasting glucose at the population level.

Mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans. Evidence for a hyperbolic function. Most obese individuals, despite being insulin resistant, do not develop hyperglycemia. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without type 2 diabetes twin studies on obesity further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. The index twins of discordant pairs had been more obese than those of concordant pairs, suggesting that obesity plays a more important role in those with weaker genetic susceptibility for diabetes. Adipose tissue affects metabolism by secreting hormones, glycerol, and other substances including leptin, cytokines, adiponectin, and proinflammatory substances, and by releasing NEFAs. Kasuga M.

View author publications. Fwin the obesity-GWAS framework, case—control approaches in children, adolescents and adults have also been widely used [ 49 — 53 ]. The contribution of SNPs was much greater in men than in women High levels can indicate that a child has a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes.

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