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Trans int journal of obesity – Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift

Humans have only a weak innate ability to recognise foods with high-energy density and to downregulate the bulk eaten to meet energy requirements appropriately.

William Murphy
Sunday, February 10, 2019
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  • Weight gain with antidepressants and lithium. Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans.

  • Increasing rates of weight gain and the follow-on effect of increasing rates of obesity are a global concern, as higher body mass indices BMIs have been consistently associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. Thank you for visiting nature.

  • Lipids ; 41 : — Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Clock gene CGC haplotype may be protective for the development of obesity and support the hypothesis that genetic variation in the Clock gene may play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  • AMP-activated protein kinase and muscle glucose uptake.

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Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Am J Prev Med ; 32 : —

A large popular literature has accumulated that supports individuals in developing intuitive eating skills [ 8— ]. Attempts to lose weight typically result in weight cycling, and such attempts are more common among obese individuals [ 62 ]. J Psychol. Additional information Authors' contributions LB initiated the collaboration. Intakes of trans fatty acids in New Zealand and Australia.

A large Canadian report produced infor example, found that low income was strongly associated with diabetes journal when BMI and physical activity was accounted for [ 73 ]. Dieting and other weight loss behaviors are popular in the general population and widely encouraged in public health policy and health care practice as a solution for the "problem" of obesity. Revised : 10 May Four studies additionally measured metabolic risk factors and three of these studies indicated significant improvement in at least some of these parameters, including blood pressure and blood lipids [ 111216171920 ].

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Med Exerc Nutr Health. Effects of different dietary fat types on postprandial appetite and energy expenditure. Clinical Ethics There are serious ethical concerns regarding the continued rtans of a weight-centered paradigm in current practice in relation to beneficence and nonmaleficence. In the human studies, consumption of TFA was most commonly determined by assessing dietary TFA intakes through food frequency questionnaires FFQ or diet diaries, although a small number of more recent papers used the levels of TFA in blood or adipose tissue as a surrogate biomarker of TFA intakes.

Methods Citations. Conventional thought suggests that body discontent helps motivate beneficial lifestyle change []. Download citation. Fat oxidation on the Trans int journal of obesity diet was not ttans different from either of the other diets Skip to main content. Also, much evidence suggests that insulin resistance is a product of an underlying metabolic disturbance that predisposes the individual to increased fat storage due to compensatory insulin secretion [ 6174 — 78 ]. HAES academics have highlighted the inherent limitations of an individualistic approach to conceptualizing health.

  • Metabolism of trans fatty acids by hepatocytes. Peer Review reports.

  • To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

  • Four studies additionally measured metabolic risk factors and three of these studies indicated significant improvement in at least some of these parameters, including blood pressure and blood lipids [ 111216171920 ].

  • Fat oxidation on the SFA diet was not significantly different from either of the other diets Increasing rates of obesity have stimulated research into possible contributing factors, including specific dietary components such as trans fatty acids TFAs.

  • Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation.

It is also notable that the prevalence of uournal dropped by half between anda time when average weight sharply increased, declining much more steeply among those deemed overweight and obese than among thinner individuals [ 90 ]. Psychologist Deb Burgard examined the costs of overlooking the normal weight people who need treatment and over-treating the obese people who do not personal communication, March Int J Obes Lond. Health Aff Millwood.

Musi N, Goodyear LJ. The transient hypoxia may occur frequently during adipose tissue expansion in obesity. Progress in the genetics of common obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hum Genet ; : —

Using reference management software

New York City Google Scholar The united section explains the rationale supporting some of the significant ways in which the HAES paradigm differs from the conventional obeskty paradigm. Strohacker K, McFarlin B: Influence of obesity, physical inactivity, and weight cycling on chronic inflammation. It concludes that there is limited but consistent evidence from epidemiological studies, and from a primate model, that increased TFA consumption may result in a small additional weight gain. Obes Res ; 12 : —

  • A Pub Med search for "Health at Every Size" or "intuitive eating" or "non-diet" or "nondiet" revealed 57 publications. Discrimination based on weight now equals or exceeds that based on race or gender [ ].

  • This review considers the evidence for an association between TFA intake and weight gain.

  • Has PDF.

  • Hypoxia treatment Two methods were used in the generation of hypoxia. PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses.

Issue Date : March Editor spotlight Journal of Obesity maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. A journal article with 1 author.

  • Bacon, L.

  • Hum Genet ; : — Download PDF.

  • The primary intent of HAES is to support improved health behaviors for people of all sizes without using weight as a mediator; weight loss may or may not be a side effect. Correspondence to Linda Bacon.

  • EFSA J ; 81 : 1—

There was no significant difference between obesit and trans isomers. Data from a long-term study in a primate model suggest… Expand. No information on the levels of TFA consumption or additional statistical analysis was reported. Assessment of frans-fatty acid intake with a food frequency questionnaire and validation with adipose tissue levels of frans-fatty acids.

Show results from All journals This journal. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. Article Google Scholar. Figure 1. Associated data ClinicalTrials. Genetic risk factors for BMI and obesity in an ethnically diverse population: results from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology PAGE study.

Introduction

Lipids ; 29 : — Lancet ; : — In other words, obesity may be an early symptom of diabetes as opposed to its primary underlying cause.

Obesity information. Adipose tissue vascularization: its role in chronic inflammation. This demonstrates that the same product, unknown to the consumer, can vary substantially in its compliance with recommendations for healthy food. Bioinformatic functional investigation of SNPs at these loci suggests a possible impact on pathways that regulate metabolism and adipose tissue. The test was conducted in differentiated cells. The data suggest that utilization of fatty acid and glucose by mitochondria are inhibited by hypoxia in adipocytes.

Whether adults with obesity can achieve weight loss with once-weekly semaglutide at a dose of 2. Eur J Clin Nutr ; 54 : — Revised : 10 May Am J Hum Genet ; 95 : — Correspondence to J Weng or J Ye.

  • This is less true at statistical extremes.

  • Article Google Scholar.

  • Since weight tracks closely with socioeconomic class, obesity is a particularly potent marker of social disparity [ ].

  • Issue Date : January Int J Obes 42, —

Discussion Current study demonstrates that rtans hypoxia is able to reprogram differentiating 3T3-L1 cells in metabolism for enhanced TG accumulation. PaunescuPierre AyotteE. There were no differences in acute post-prandial appetite, ad libitum energy intake or energy efficiency between the test meals. AMP-activated protein kinase and muscle glucose uptake. The role of local ancestry adjustment in association studies using admixed populations. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

After almost eight years on this diet, there was almost no change in weight from starting point a loss of 0. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. The lipogenesis rate de novo synthesis of FA in white adipose tissue was highest in those consuming the palm oil, but was also significantly higher in those on the partially hydrogenated vegetable oil diet than those consuming canola or soy oil. Article Google Scholar 2 Rosenheck R.

Journal articles

HAES academics have highlighted the inherent limitations of an individualistic approach to conceptualizing health. Diabetes Care ; 25 : — Minihane and C. However, changes in health behaviors do not fully account for the metabolic disturbances. Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans.

Accepted : 27 May Rodent and primate studies are summarized in the second part of Table 1. The increase trans int journal of obesity metabolic obseity can in part be explained by a change in eating, exercise and drinking patterns attendant on coping with stress. Obesity: be cool, lose weight. Raikkonen K, Matthews KA, Kuller LH: The relationship between psychological risk attributes and the metabolic syndrome in healthy women: antecedent or consequence?. Male Wistar rats fed diets containing 9.

We accept this argument; we have used "overweight" and "obese" journl this paper when necessary trans int journal of obesity report research where these categories were used. Soc Sci Med. Research also indicates that weight fluctuation is associated with poorer cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality risk [ 64 — 68 ]. Relevant cell and animal studies have also been included — Nutr Rev. Paper presented at American Public Health Association.

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J Biol Chem ; : — Advanced search. Denko NC. Trans fat ing results in higher serum alanine aminotransferase and increased insulin resistance compared with a standard murine high-fat diet. The authors observed that the differences were not due to changes in the key enzymes of hepatic fatty acid metabolism, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.

AMPK inhibition decreased the hypoxia effect on glucose uptake. Nutrition ; 17 : — Wistar rats fed isoenergetic diets that included 0 or 4. Springer International Publishing: Cham,

This review highlights the neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms linked to obesity and emphasizes the importance of developing effective prevention and treatment intervention strategies for overweight and obese individuals. Correspondence to U Peters. Published : 24 April Assessing the accuracy of observer-reported ancestry in a biorepository linked to electronic medical records.

Publication types

All prices are NET prices. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. Denko NC.

  • J Pediatr Psychol. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

  • These factors, however, would normally tend to underestimate the strength of the identified associations. Stender, S.

  • Recent review of NHANES, for example, a nationally representative sample of ethnically diverse people over the age of fifty, shows that mortality increased among those who lost weight [ 97 ]. Am J Clin Nutr ; 30 : —

In acute response to hypoxia, adipocytes exhibited an increase in insulin-dependent and -independent glucose uptake. Journal Citation Indicator 0. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Indian Health Service. Role of hypoxia in obesity-induced disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Figure 1. Given that transient hypoxia is able to reprogram the preadipocytes for enhanced insulin sensitivity, it may alter adipocyte differentiation.

More than 20, women maintained a low-fat diet, reportedly reducing their calorie intake by an average of calories per day [ ] and significantly increasing their activity [ ]. Goss K, Allen S: Compassion focused therapy for eating disorders. Martin's Griffin, 2 Google Scholar The idea that "this is the first generation of children that may have a shorter life expectancy than their parents" is commonly expressed in scientific journals [ 54 ] and popular press articles [ 55 ], even appearing in Congressional testimony by former Surgeon General Richard Carmona [ 56 ] and a report from the White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity[ 57 ]. Eat Disord. Cell studies The two cell studies are summarized in the first part of Table 1.

Expert Rev Mol Med ; 12 : e7. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. Uournal and multiple exposures to hypoxia were applied to the cells to understand the acute and chronic impact in metabolism. BMI has been shown to be a heritable, polygenic trait, with close to loci previously identified and replicated in multiple populations.

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Hournal Fast-food restaurant chains may argue that the evidence linking their products to the super-sizing of their customers is too weak. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Conclusion Epidemiological studies provide limited but consistent evidence to support a weak association between TFA consumption and a small increase in weight gain.

Additionally, significant microangiopathy observed in rat models may be another important mechanism of induction of apoptosis. How to format your references using the International Journal of Obesity citation style This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Obesity. Data from a long-term study in a primate model suggest that TFA may have a greater adipogenic effect than cis monounsaturated fatty acids; however, there are currently inadequate mechanistic data to provide a comprehensive and plausible explanation for any such metabolic differences between the types of fatty acids. Musi N, Goodyear LJ.

It is also difficult to identify a clear mechanism for an effect of TFA on weight gain. Journwl J ; 81 : 1— Two days after confluence, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiation using the standard adipogenic cocktail 0. Rosenheck R. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin are hormones secreted by adipose tissue. Lipids ; 41 : —

A thematic analysis was conducted. Science ; : 47— In the recovery treatment, the cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 0. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index. BMC Public Health Advanced search.

Introduction

Weight is not a behavior and therefore not an appropriate target for behavior modification. Am J Public Health. Obes Res. Google Scholar The majority of the studies performed using rodent models have reported that diets containing TFA have resulted in the same or lower body weights than control diets containing cis FA.

  • J Health Econ ; 27 : — Obesity ; 16 : —

  • For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors. Revised : 10 May

  • J Am Geriatr Soc. Supporting Intuitive Eating Conventional recommendations view conscious efforts to monitor and restrict food choices as a necessary aspect of eating for health or weight control [ ].

  • Denko NC.

  • The notable exception is diabetes, which showed a small, non-significant increase during this time period [ 90 ].

Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Br J Nutr ; 90 : — Cite this article Gong, J. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry. Haga SB. This design was employed to test the stage-specific effect of the hypoxia on differentiation.

The primary trrans a precise description of the treatment effect reflecting the objective of the clinical obesity assessed effects regardless of treatment discontinuation or rescue interventions. The glucose uptake was tested in the adipocytes with or without insulin stimulation. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 10 : — Using reference management software Journal articles Books and book chapters Web sites Reports Theses and dissertations News paper articles In-text citations About the journal Other styles. Stimulation of de novo lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis by insulin may contribute to the TG accumulation.

Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. Thank you for visiting nature. Nat Genet ; 41 : 18— A phenomenological exploration of faculty experiences using lecture capture systems.

Some investigations were conducted before the name "Health at Every Size" came into common usage; these earlier studies typically used the terms "non-diet" or "intuitive eating" and included an explicit focus on size acceptance as opposed to weight loss or weight maintenance. See Table 1. Beneficence concerns the requirement to effect treatment benefit.

Wistar rats fed isoenergetic diets that included 0 or 4. Television, walking, and diet: associations with postpartum weight retention. Research also suggests that dieting is associated with increased chronic psychological stress and cortisol production, two factors known to increase disease risk [ ]. Update on Trans Fatty Acids and Health.

Br J Nutr ; 90 : — Lee DH, Steffes M, Jacobs DR: Positive associations of serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls or organochlorine pesticides with self-reported arthritis, especially rheumatoid type, in women. Epidemiology ; 1 : — CAS Google Scholar. Animal and cell studies have reported conflicting results with regard to the effect of TFA on glucose and lipid oxidation and on body weight and composition.

An integrated map of genetic variation from 1, human genomes. Fast and accurate genotype imputation in genome-wide association studies through pre-phasing. Effects of trans fatty acids on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The corresponding weight gain for women of normal weight was 1. Curr Diab Rep ; 11 : —

  • Diabetes Care. Ann Epidemiol.

  • Am J Clin Nutr ; 78 : —

  • There is increasing concern about the endemic misrepresentation of evidence in these weight management policies [ 58 ]. New York City Google Scholar

  • Rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation were measured at the end of each diet phase, with subjects oxidizing significantly less fat on the MUFA diet

  • Am J Health Promot ; 21 Suppl 4 : — Clinical inquiries.

  • Another unintended consequence of the weight loss imperative is an increase in stigmatization and discrimination against fat individuals. As per the report, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association and reviewed and approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, "[this] finding is consistent with other results reported in the literature.

Activation of a HIF1alpha-PPARgamma axis underlies the integration of glycolytic and lipid anabolic pathways in pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. Metabolic reprogramming is determined by gene expression and posttranslational modification of enzymes. Lin Diabetologia Am J Clin Nutr ; 78 : —

Both authors approved the final manuscript. Energy efficiency respiratory gas exchange was measured continuously, and appetite rated by visual analogue scales. There is considerable evidence that intuitive eating skills can be learned [ 1118], and that intuitive eating is associated with improved nutrient intake [ ], reduced eating disorder symptomatology [ 1718— ] - and not with weight gain [ 111316 — 18 ]. Front Biosci. Coming to eat intuitively happens gradually as old beliefs about food, nutrition and eating are challenged, unlearned and replaced with new ones. Social networks vs environmental factors in the obesity epidemic. An international professional organization, the Association for Size Diversity and Health, has developed, composed of individual members across a wide span of professions who are committed to HAES principles.

You can also od for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy. Obesity is a global health problem with a broad set of comorbidities, such as malnutrition, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, systemic hypertension, heart failure, and kidney failure. A thematic analysis was conducted. Am J Clin Nutr ; 78 : — Correspondence to J Weng or J Ye.

View 1 excerpt, cites methods. When studies do control for these factors, increased risk of disease disappears or is significantly reduced [ 61 ]. In other words, two equally fat women would have very different health outcomes, depending on how they felt about their bodies.

PubMed Google Scholar Weight cycling results in increased inflammation, ibesity in turn is known to increase risk for many obesity-associated diseases [ 63 ]. Acknowledgements Deb Burgard conceptualized the obesity cost analysis. The authors observed that the differences were not due to changes in the key enzymes of hepatic fatty acid metabolism, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.

  • Google Scholar

  • Diabetes ; 58 : 95— BentleyShawneequa L.

  • Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans.

Evidence from these six RCTs indicates that a HAES approach is juornal with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures e. Effects of different dietary fat types on postprandial appetite and energy expenditure. Launch Research Feed Feed. Recent review of NHANES, for example, a nationally representative sample of ethnically diverse people over the age of fifty, shows that mortality increased among those who lost weight [ 97 ].

Hypoxia treatment Two methods were used in the generation of hypoxia. European Journal of Nutrition Results: In acute response to hypoxia, adipocytes exhibited an increase in insulin-dependent and -independent glucose uptake. Activation of AMP kinase enhances sensitivity of muscle glucose transport to insulin. It is also difficult to identify a clear mechanism for an effect of TFA on weight gain.

Quantification was normalized with loading control. Obeaity Factor. Activation of a HIF1alpha-PPARgamma axis underlies the integration of glycolytic and lipid anabolic pathways in pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Increasing rates of obesity have stimulated research into possible contributing factors, including specific dietary components such as trans fatty acids TFAs. Involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

  • Ann Surg.

  • TG accumulation was examined in the adipocytes to evaluate the differentiation.

  • It is likely that these other factors increase disease risk at the same time they increase the risk of weight gain.

  • Van Loan MD, Keim NL: Influence of cognitive eating restraint on total-body measurements of bone mineral density and bone mineral content in premenopausal women y: a cross-sectional study. Minihane and C.

  • Lipids ; 28 : —

Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. Buy or subscribe. PubMed Google Scholar. Adipocyte lipolysis and uptake of fatty acids by adipocytes are also inhibited by hypoxia. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Postprandial response of trans fatty acids in obssity obese children. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size HAES challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. No studies found adverse changes in any variables. Panigrahi K, Sampugna J. Metrics details.

These metabolic alterations in adipocytes may contribute to TG accumulation in response to hypoxia. Nutr Res ; 29 : — A twin study of human obesity. Hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets with different contents of C, C cis and C trans isomers.

Curr Diab Rep. Nutrition Journal volume iintArticle number: 9 Cite this article. Serum polyunsaturated fatty trans int journal of obesity in infancy are associated with body composition in adolescence. As indicated by research conducted by one of the authors and many other investigators, most health indicators can be improved through changing health behaviors, regardless of whether weight is lost [ 11 ]. Deb Burgard conceptualized the obesity cost analysis.

Bacon, L. Am J Health Behav. Rrans Biosci. J Pediatr Psychol. Evidence also challenges the assumption that weight loss is associated with improvement in long-term glycemic control, as reflected in HbA1c values [ 99]. However, when the effects of all nutrients studied were combined, they only explained 0. Trans fat intake lowers total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels without changing insulin sensitivity index in Wistar rats.

  • Thompson and A. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and blood lipids as a result of aerobic exercise training have been documented even in individuals who gained body fat during the intervention [].

  • Figure 1. Int J Obes Relat Disord ; 30 : —

  • Results indicated that body image had a much bigger impact on health than body size. An overall summary of the data is presented in Table 4.

Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations. Supplementary information. Activation of AMP kinase enhances sensitivity of muscle glucose transport to insulin. According to the level of difficulty, patients were allocated into 2 groups: group 1 included patients who underwent concomitant LC during bariatric surgery, and group 2 included patients who underwent delayed LC after 2 months. Gene-centric meta-analyses of individuals confirm known body mass index loci and reveal three novel signals.

Assumption: The only way for overweight obesity obese people to improve health is to lose weight Evidence: That weight loss will improve health over the long-term for obese people is, in fact, an untested hypothesis. Int J Epidemiol. J Soc Issues. Google Scholar. Critical Bodies. Both the World Health Organization and the Social Security Administration project life expectancy will continue to rise in coming decades [ 5960 ]. Issue Date : March

MeSH terms

In the human studies, consumption of TFA was most commonly determined by assessing dietary TFA intakes through food frequency questionnaires FFQ or diet diaries, although a small number of more recent papers used the levels of TFA in blood or adipose tissue as a surrogate biomarker of TFA intakes. Epidemiological studies rarely acknowledge factors like fitness, activity, nutrient intake, weight cycling or socioeconomic status when considering connections between weight and disease. Download citation. Search all BMC articles Search.

  • Higgins L, Gray W: Changing the body image concern and eating behaviour of chronic dieters: the effects of a psychoeducational intervention.

  • A Framework for evaluation of evidence that relates food and nutrients to health. The present randomized phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy of liraglutide in maintaining weight loss achieved with a low-calorie diet LCD.

  • The study identified six different risk factors for cardiometabolic health and included subjects in the "unhealthy" group if they had two or more risk factors, making it a more stringent threshold of health than that used in categorizing metabolic syndrome or diabetes.

  • Neumark-Sztainer D: Preventing obesity and eating disorders in adolescents: what can health care providers do?. PubMed Google Scholar 6.

  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis ofadults.

Otherwise, I declare no conflict of interest. Trans-ethnic analysis of metabochip data identifies two new loci associated with BMI. Comparison of the acute response to meals enriched with cis - or trans -fatty acids on glucose and lipids in overweight individuals with differing FABP2 genotypes. The acute oxidation rates of different FA were examined using 13 C-FA in test meals given to four healthy male volunteers. Prev Med ; 46 : 22— Leptin, adiponectin and resistin are hormones secreted by adipose tissue. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

Obeslty Med. This ethicality has been adopted by HAES in several ways. Likewise, two women with similar body insecurities would have similar health outcomes, even if one were fat and the other thin. Higgins L, Gray W: Changing the body image concern and eating behaviour of chronic dieters: the effects of a psychoeducational intervention. Health Canada. Trans fatty acids and weight gain.

Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging off lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. Obes Res ; 12 : — All of the controlled studies showed retention rates substantially higher than, or, in one instance, as high, as the control group, and all of the uncontrolled studies also showed high retention rates.

  • Also, there is emerging evidence that persistent organic pollutants POPswhich bioaccumulate in adipose tissue and are released during its breakdown, can increase risk of various chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes [], cardiovascular disease [ ] and rheumatoid arthritis [ ]; two studies document that people who have lost weight have higher concentration of POPs in their blood [].

  • Observational studies have found that a high intake of IP-TFA is stronger associated to the risk of weight gain and gain in abdominal fatness than to the intake of other fat sources.

  • Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans.

  • These conditions are mediated through increased metabolic risk seen as raised cholesterol, raised blood pressure, raised triglycerides and insulin resistance. J Adolesc Health.

EFSA J ; 81 : 1— Policies which promote weight loss as feasible and beneficial not only perpetuate journal obesity and damaging stereotypes [ ], but also contribute to a healthist, moralizing discourse which mitigates against socially-integrated approaches to health [,]. About this article Cite this article Thompson, A. Int J Cardiol. Assumption: Adiposity poses significant mortality risk Evidence: Except at statistical extremes, body mass index BMI - or amount of body fat - only weakly predicts longevity [ 32 ]. Accepted : 27 May

Can J of Diabetes Care. All studies indicate significant improvements in psychological and behavioral outcomes; improvements in trans int journal of obesity and eating behaviors were particularly noteworthy [ 11 — 1416171920 ]. However, as discussed previously in the section on the pursuit of weight loss, evidence suggests the opposite: promoting body discontent instead induces harm [,], resulting in less favorable lifestyle choices. The journey towards adopting intuitive eating is typically a process one engages in over time. Abstract Objective: Accumulating evidence raises the hypothesis that dysregulation of intrinsic clock mechanisms are involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

Ward LD, Kellis M. Trans-ethnic analysis of metabochip data identifies two new loci associated with BMI. Genet Med ; 12 : — ZongY.

Yuan C, Yamagata T. J Am Diet Assoc ; : — French fries and fried meat from fast-food outlets contain high amounts of industrially produced trans -fatty acids. Protein intake is inversely associated with abdominal obesity in a multi-ethnic population.

J Health Econ ; 27 : — In the human studies, consumption of TFA was most commonly determined by obesity dietary TFA intakes through food frequency questionnaires FFQ or diet diaries, although a small number of more recent papers used the levels of TFA in blood or adipose tissue as a surrogate biomarker of TFA intakes. Rev Environ Health. Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr ; 78 : — J Am Coll Cardiol.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; : — Data from a long-term study in a primate model suggest that TFA may trans int journal of obesity a greater adipogenic effect than cis monounsaturated fatty acids; however, there are currently inadequate mechanistic data to provide a comprehensive and plausible explanation for any such metabolic differences between the types of fatty acids. As observed at 0. A trans world journey. Induction of glucose uptake by transient hypoxia in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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