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Perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity: A review of the psychological and familial perspectives of childhood obesity

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries.

William Murphy
Thursday, July 5, 2018
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  • Pharmacological and surgical treatment of pediatric obesity New research on the elucidation of the physiological basis of bodyweight regulation, and sequencing of the human genome have provided an opportunity to develop new anti-obesity agents. European Eating Disorders Review.

  • Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents.

  • Child Dev 69 —

Diseases related to childhood obesity

Children aged 3 through 5 years should be physically active throughout the day for growth and development. Disoredrs link in a new tab. There is no consensus on a cut-off point for excess fatness of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Keywords: Childhood obesity, consequences, epidemiology, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, overweight.

Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. It has been estimated that Chapter 1. The author's found that authoritative feeding determining which foods are offered, allowing the child to choose, and providing rationale for healthy options is associated with positive cognitions about healthy foods and healthier intake. Int J Obes Lond.

Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Pediatrics :e— Perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity current review focuses on an updated analysis of the dlseases relevant psychiatric and psychosocial issues in childhood overweight. The main limitation of the present review is inherent in its design, as we have specifically decided to relate to open studies in addition to controlled and randomized controlled trials RCTs. Many studies have examined the link between sugary drink consumption and weight and it has been continually found to be a contributing factor to being overweight. Schools play an important role in establishing an environment that supports healthy lifestyle habits.

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It also recommends limiting chlidhood and beverages with added sugars, solid fats, or sodium. Although definition of obesity and overweight has changed over time, it can be defined as an excess of body fat BF. Living The Religion debate Scientology. Basal metabolic rate has also been studied as a possible cause of obesity. The ecological model, as described by Davison et al.

Disorderss date, the majority of research has focused on the impact of obesity on bone and joint disorders, such as the risk of fracture and osteoarthritis. Waist circumference seems to be more accurate for children because it targets central obesity, which is a risk factor for type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. Many studies have been conducted to examine whether these foods have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity. Government and social policies could also potentially promote healthy behavior. Chapter 3.

ALSO READ: Teenage Obesity Ygoy Health

Perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity influences and attitudes The likelihood of the family to be involved in the predisposition to obesity in their children and in the well-being of their obese children may be associated with a host of familial variables. Obesity 17 — Prevalence of binge-eating disorder in obese children and adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment. Public Health Nutr 12 —8. These associations remain consistent also after adjusting for a variety of parental characteristics i. In the past 30 years, pediatric obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents worldwide 3.

The majority of children in the past walked or rode their bike to school. Most popular. People of all shapes and sizes fall ill for reasons that have nothing to do with weight, and many people are in prime physical health despite being obese. Living Politics The Racism Debate.

Diseases and disorders, some researchers have reported no difference in the manner in which parents of normal and overweight children eisorders their weight, with both groups likely inclining toward underestimation []. Int J Pediatr Obes 1 —8. Such interventions should be multimodal, focusing perspectjves several factors: the influence of the media on the child and the family, the overall reduction in physical activity and increase in sedentary activities in current Western societies, the availability of unhealthy snacks and soft drinks in school and at home, the change in portion sizes in restaurants, and the increase in marketing of food products with a high-fat content. Thus, psychosocial factors are crucial to dietary and physical activity behaviors that affect energy balance as children who suffer from neglect, depression, and other associated issues are at an increased risk of childhood obesity, which eventually may result in overweight adults. The parenting style defined as authoritarian seems to be specifically prevalent in families of obese children [ ].

Publication types

Therefore, classing obesity as a disease may inadvertently steer treatment toward drugs and gastrointestinal surgeries, for a condition that can often be overcome albeit less easily through diet and exercise. Portion sizes have increased drastically in the past decade. This energy imbalance can cause weight gain, and consequently obesity. Availability of, and repeated exposure to, healthy foods is key to developing preferences and can overcome dislike of foods. Related Topics.

Nutr Rev. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Showing recent items. It has been estimated that No search term specified. Chapter 8. Quo Vadis?

Other community factors include the affordability of healthy childhooe options, peer and social supports, marketing and promotion, and policies that determine how a community is designed. Pilar, Samuel. Conclusion The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. Fast food Consumption: Increased fast food consumption has been linked with obesity in the recent years.

  • The socio-cultural status and region of residence may also have an influence on self-esteem. Parent-child feeding strategies and their relationships to child eating and weight status.

  • Living metoo.

  • Genetic factors stem from the genes of parents, frequently leading to children becoming overweight 5.

  • Children who have obesity are more likely to have:

  • J Paediatr Child Health. Promotion of physical activity in children.

  • Additional information Binding HardcovereBook. Beyond affecting their self-esteem, it influences other conditions that can affect their quality of life.

Designating obesity as a disease rather than a consequence of poor lifestyle may relieve the stigma surrounding it and encourage those affected to seek medical assistance, instead of diseases and disorders appointments for fear of humiliation. Beyond affecting their self-esteem, it influences other conditions that can affect their quality of life. Children aged 3 through 5 years should be physically active throughout the day for growth and development. For large population-based studies and clinical situations, bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA is widely used. These are the main diseases related to childhood obesity. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: The Calcutta childhood obesity study.

Causes of Childhood Obesity It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. It can be difficult to make healthy food choices and get enough physical activity in environments that do not support healthy habits. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

REVIEW article

J Public Health 29 — Risk factors for overweight among Brazilian adolescents of low-income families: a obesitt study. Moreover, exposure to food advertisements may produce a substantial increase in energy intake among children, this is evident in the increase in the amount of food intake in particular intake of high-fat snacks following exposure to food-related commercials BMC Public Health. A study by conducted by Williams et al.

HardcovereBook. Associations between obesity and comorbid an health, developmental, and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample of US children aged 10 to Is obesity a disease or not? It has been estimated that Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: The Calcutta childhood obesity study. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide.

Eating disorder traits in obese children and adolescents. Abstract Despite the multifactorial nature of musculoskeletal disease, obesity consistently emerges as a key and potentially modifiable risk factor in the onset and progression of musculoskeletal conditions of the hip, knee, ankle, foot and shoulder. Ghosh A. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study.

Description

Close Save Changes. Not getting enough physical activity and spending too much time on sedentary activities such as watching television or other screen devices can lead to weight gain. Cancel Continue.

Below, three of the more common health problems associated with childhood obesity are discussed, diabetes, dieases apnea, and cardiovascular disease. But BMI does not measure body fat directly, and as such, people who are not obese according to their body fat percentage are deemed obese with the BMI diagnostic. In addition, family mealtimes can influence the type of food consumed and the amount thereof. Obesity Silver Spring ; 15 — Dietary factors have been studied extensively for its possible contributions to the rising rates of obesity. Academic consequences Childhood obesity has also been found to negatively affect school performance.

  • Text Book of Public health and Community Medicine. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

  • Basal metabolic rate has also been studied as a possible cause of obesity.

  • I agree.

  • Excess weight and obesity in children can generate low self-esteem, as we have already seen, and push the child towards anorexia or bulimia in a desperate attempt to lose weight.

  • Unfavourable family characteristics and their associations with childhood obesity: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Eating Disorders volume 1Article number: 7 Cite this article.

Body mass index in screening for adiposity in children and adolescents: Systematic evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves. Asthma and obesity in children are independently associated with airway Dysanapsis. Am J Matern Child Nurs. Indian J Public Health.

Cbildhood healthy diet follows the Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon. Therefore, the child weighs much more than the weight considered healthy for his or her age and height. What's this? As proposed by the National Taskforce on Obesityfiscal policies such as taxing unhealthy options, providing incentives for the distribution of inexpensive healthy food, and investing in convenient recreational facilities or the esthetic quality of neighborhoods can enhance healthy eating and physical activity.

How Healthy Is Soy?

Int J Pediatr Obes. By contrast, studies that define binge eating as including loss of control over eating as well, have found a greater extent of bingeing behaviors among girls, in keeping with findings in adults [ — ]. Sweeting H, West P, Young R: Obesity among Scottish 15 year olds — prevalence and associations with socio-economic status, well-being and worries about weight. There is an association between the consumption of convenience foods and total energy intake or body weight in adolescents and adults

In a more recent randomized controlled trial RCT involving the entire family, Fulkerson et al. For adolescents and young adults who succumbed to trauma, the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors correlated with asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis, and lesions were more advanced in obese individuals 17 Furthermore, overweight children show a greater preponderance of ADHD symptoms of both inattention, for example deficits in set shifting and attention abilities, and impulsivity in comparison to normal-weight youngsters [ 8687 ]. J Health Educ. Biomed Environ Sci. J Pediatr Psychol.

  • Obesity 17 — Cochrane Database Syst Rev :Cd

  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website.

  • The types of food available in the house and the food preferences of family members can influence the foods that children eat. Puhl and Latner [ 5 ] have recently critically analyzed the findings about the association between obesity, teasing, and health among youth.

  • Is obesity associated with poor sleep quality in adolescents? Influence of behavioral determinants on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of Aligarh.

While BMI seems appropriate for differentiating adults, it may not be as useful perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity children because of their changing body shape as they progress through normal growth. Is it the health food that some suggest or does it have negative side effects for our bodies and the environment? A study conducted examined the eating habits of lean and overweight adolescents at fast food restaurants. For books published prior toplease click here. Given the global increase in obesity and the rapid rise in musculoskeletal disorders, there is a need to determine the physical consequences of continued repetitive loading of major structures of the locomotor system in the obese and to establish how obesity may interact with other factors to potentially increase the risk of musculoskeletal disease. Concomitantly, there is a progressive rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and other nutrition related chronic diseases NRCDs like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health.

Indian J Public Health. Obes Chilehood. Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: A population-based case-control study. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization. Lifestyle interventions including nutrition, exercise, and supplements for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. However, what exactly is childhood obesity?

Childhood obesity in the world

Familial disordrrs to the treatment of childhood obesity: conceptual mode. Still, it is still not clear why in some community studies obese children and adolescents show greater psychopathology than normal weight youngsters, whereas in other studies there are no differences in the psychopathology of non-clinically referred obese children and their normal weight peers. J Paediatr Child Health 45 —8. There is an association between the consumption of convenience foods and total energy intake or body weight in adolescents and adults

  • Consumption of low-fat dairy products is recommended to maintain a healthy body weight and height. Int J Eat Disord 42 —

  • Eur Eat Disord Rev. Childhood overweight: A contextual model and recommendations for future research.

  • Still, this can cause doubt about the validity of some of the findings described in this review.

Eat Weight Disord. Maternal perception of their overweight children. One of the most significant factors relating to sleep patterns in adolescence is the extent to which parents supervise bedtime schedules. Major psychological comorbidities include internalizing and externalizing disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and problems with sleep 67.

Childhood obesity dhildhood also been found to negatively affect school performance. Children who have obesity are more likely to have: Focusing on these causes may, over time, decrease childhood obesity and lead to a healthier society as a whole. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Close to 35 million of these are living in developing countries. Psychosocial aspects of obesity.

MeSH terms

Pediatr Diabetes 7 —4. What children learn at home about eating healthy, exercising and making the right nutritional choices will eventually spill over into other aspects of their life. Rettner R: Obesity: causes, complications and treatment.

  • Yanovski JA: Intensive therapies for pediatric obesity. J Clin Sleep Med 7 —

  • Living The Big Debates the Circumcision debate.

  • Sleep 21 —6. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

  • This was done in an attempt to provide a more clinically oriented review to broaden the knowledge and understanding of professionals in an area that may suffer from lack of adequate knowledge and prejudicial attitudes, and to create a place for discussion, rather than providing only evidence-based recommendations and tools.

Availability of, and repeated exposure perspcetives, healthy foods is key to developing preferences and can overcome dislike of foods. Interesting Articles. Modal Title. Unfavourable family characteristics and their associations with childhood obesity: A cross-sectional study. Feeling fat rather than being fat may be associated with psychological well-being in young Dutch adolescents. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Yale disease prevention researcher, D.

Factors that alter body fat, body mass, and fat-free mass in pediatric obesity. This clustering can cause cardiovascular disease risk factors, known as the insulin resistance syndrome, which has been identified in children as young as 5 years of age An international forum of consensus development, the International Obesity Task Force IOTF [ 6 ], has recently recommended adopting the risk-related cut-off concept of Cole et al. Several lines of investigation have been suggested to account for the association of ADHD during childhood with overweight and obesity in adolescence or young adulthood. Williams et al studied the cardiovascular health in childhood obesity and other diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension in young people in the USA

References

Health Educ Res 26 — Childhood consequences of obesity include increased risk of asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, orthopedic disorders, and reduced academic performance. This phenomenon has not been investigated yet in adolescents, but apparently BED in youngsters does not develop into BN in later life [ ].

Fast food Consumption: Increased fast food consumption has been linked with obesity in the recent years. The cchildhood is undergoing a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition characterized by persistent nutritional deficiencies, as evidenced by the prevalence of stunting, anemia, and iron and zinc deficiencies. It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. In addition, children who are overweight tend to have fewer friends than normal weight children, which results in less social interaction and play, and more time spent in sedentary activities. Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating to safe places, such as their homes, where they may seek food as a comfort.

There are many components that play into childhood obesity, some being more crucial than others. Donald E. Government and social policies could also potentially promote healthy behavior. The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. Manmohan K. It also recommends limiting foods and beverages with added sugars, solid fats, or sodium. Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive.

Additional information

Is obesity a disease or not? Chapter 4. Address for correspondence: Dr.

These associations remain consistent also after adjusting childohod a variety of parental characteristics i. The ecological model, as described by Davison et al. Learn More. This new conceptualization leads us to simultaneously address the root causes of nutritional deficiencies which in turn will contribute to the control of under nutrition and the prevention of obesity, diabetes, and other NRCDs. Ten-year outcomes of behavioral family-based treatment for childhood obesity. Arch Intern Med. Progress has been made in understanding the physiology and genetics of appetite control, which have been useful in determining the causes of some rare obesity syndromes.

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Waist circumference seems diseqses be more accurate for children because it targets central obesity, which is a risk factor for type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. Living The Religion debate Scientology. Portion sizes have increased drastically in the past decade. Research indicates taste, followed by hunger and price, is the most important factor in adolescents snack choices. Childhood obesity has also been found to negatively affect school performance. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21 st century.

Address for correspondence: Dr. Unfortunately, a n obese child can be the victim of all kinds of comments that affect his or her self-esteem and, in the perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity case, cause serious childhood depression. Exp Biol Med Maywood. Generic filters. Open link in a new tab. Katzpoints out that in terming something a disease, one would expect remedies to lie within the realm of pharmacological treatment, clinical visits, or surgery. Another of the diseases related to childhood obesity is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Actions necessary to prevent childhood obesity: creating the climate for change. Starting times of school: effects on daytime functioning fifth-grade children in Israel. Health Promot J Austr 18 — Several processes may mediate the association between early-life trauma and overweight.

Introduction

Marcus M: Binge Eating and Obesity. Acta Paediatr. Indian Pediatr.

New dietary, physical activity, behavioral, environmental, and pharmacological diaorders can be used for the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. Live Sc. Health Psychol 13 — J Am Diet Assoc. Although most of the physical health conditions associated with childhood obesity are preventable and can disappear when a child or adolescent reaches a healthy weight, some continue to have negative consequences throughout adulthood. Accordingly, patients with BN show greater eating related and non-eating related psychopathology than BED patients [ ]. Specific plans for diet and physical activity have been developed where general guidance is ineffective.

Academic Pediatrics. Cardiac abnormalities in youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Please review our privacy policy. Obesity: The policy challenges: The report of the national taskforce on obesity. A full third of people deemed obese indicate no increased risk for diabetes or heart disease.

Introduction

Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped relationship suggests that boys with BMIs at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction. These include regulation, restraint, working memory set-shifting and perseverative modes of thinking and behavior [ 9596 ]. Latzer, Y. Sleep 21 —

New York: Nova publisher Pp: 59— Sugary beverages A study examining children aged 9—14 from —, found that consumption of sugary beverages increased BMI by small amounts over childhood obesity years. Another crucial factor is the communities in which children reside as they provide opportunities for physical activity and access to affordable and healthy foods. Attaining healthy levels of physical fitness requires a regular exercise program of 4—5 times per week for 30—60 min Child Dev 69 — Notably, some of the results were based on self-report diagnoses rather than chart reviews or diagnosis by a physician. J Am Coll Nutr.

Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Nutr Rev. The likelihood of the family to be involved in the predisposition to anx in their obesity and in the well-being of their obese children may be associated with a host of familial variables. Factors increasing parental weight concern include higher child BMI, less parental underestimation of child body size, and lower child health-related quality of life [ ]. Obesity 18 —7. Addressing the childhood obesity crisis. Not surprisingly, both sets of factors can be divided to three dimensions: the child, the family, and the overall surroundings of the child and family.

Globally inthe number of overweight children under the age of five childhpod estimated to be over 42 million. Another area requiring regulation at the public policy level is related to food marketing aimed at children, as it has been shown to impact unhealthy food choices 71 Nutr Rev 62 — This is of particular relevance as overweight and obese youth are more likely to misperceive their weight compared with their normal weight peers Pediatr Rev. Int Q Community Health Educ 24 —

Every time we eat food, the pancreas releases insulin to separate the glucose from the ingested sugars and thus provide nutrients to the cells. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21 st century. Open link in a new tab. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs.

Footnotes Source of Chhildhood Nil. The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its prevalence is increasing in developing countries as well. About childhood obesity. There are also several methods to measure the percentage of body fat. Introduction The world is undergoing a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition characterized by persistent nutritional deficiencies, as evidenced by the prevalence of stunting, anemia, and iron and zinc deficiencies. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization.

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. Two Diets for Children with Obesity. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Am J Clin Nutr. In contrast, consuming healthy foods and being physically active can help children grow and maintain a healthy weight. The majority of American males are circumcised.

Childhood overweight: A contextual model and recommendations for future research. The problem occurs when excess food causes the pancreas to work too much. Genetics are one of the biggest factors examined as a cause of obesity. Socio-emotional consequences In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. Childhood obesity is a complex health issue.

The highest prevalence rates disdases childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its gut microbiota obesity mice is increasing in developing countries as well. Moreover, if parents enforce a healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided. Basal metabolic rate has also been studied as a possible cause of obesity. In addition, eating healthy foods and being physically active helps to prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and heart disease. Body mass index and incident type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young adults: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Public Health. Last update: 24 June, The majority of American males ln circumcised. In research, techniques include underwater weighing densitometrymulti-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis BIAand magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Children can be cruel: the bullying that appears in the newspapers every week is proof of this. Related Topics.

In addition, overweight and obese children show greater preference for energy-dense foods in comparison to normal weight children J Am Diet Assoc. Similarly, overrepresentation of binge eating behavior has been shown in adolescents and adults diagnosed with ADHD during childhood [ 9091 ]. Ghosh A.

Schools play an important role in establishing an environment that supports healthy lifestyle habits. By contrast, others conclude that djsorders the great variability in the design, duration, and outcome assessments of primary prevention studies carried out in the s, these programs may have the potential to reduce the rate of overweight in some populations. Assessing the use of school public address systems to deliver nutrition messages to children: shape up Somerville — audio adventures.

While extensive television viewing and the use of other electronic media has contributed to the sedentary lifestyles, other environmental factors have reduced and disorders opportunities for physical activity. In addition, eating healthy foods and being physically active helps to prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and heart disease. Lastly, family habits, whether they are sedentary or physically active, influence the child. Interesting Articles. Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating to safe places, such as their homes, where they may seek food as a comfort. Chapter 6. Chapter 3.

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Media Exposure and Food Advertising Children in the US and other industrialized countries are exposed to the media for an average of 3—5 h per perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity, which is greater than any other daily activity, except for sleeping 55 — 57far exceeding the television-viewing recommendations of less than 2 h per day 25 This is associated with the likelihood of restrictive approaches to feeding to interfere with satiety cues and with the natural ability of children to control and regulate their food intake. Conversely, latency children and adolescents suffering from depression and anxiety are at greater risk to develop elevated BMI [ 75 ], including obesity [ 76 ], in later life in comparison to healthy controls, although other studies have not found such an association [ 77 ]. Interventions aimed at childhood obesity include prevention and treatment, which should be ameliorated in order to become useful and beneficial in the clinical setting. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 10 —3. Similarly, engaging siblingspeersand the entire family in physical activity, combined with parental support and modeling, may have a significant beneficial effect on the physical activity of overweight children, and on their BMI. Published : 25 February

Essentially, this refers to an accumulation of excessive fat in the body. Author information Copyright perspectivew Perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity information Disclaimer. Another factor that has been studied as a possible contributing factor of childhood obesity is the consumption of snack foods. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. Prevalence of binge-eating disorder in obese children and adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Kapil U, Bhadoria AS. These conditions include, but are not limited dksorders, fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hepatic steatosis fatty liver diseasecardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, cholelithiasis gallstonesglucose intolerance and insulin resistance, skin conditions, menstrual abnormalities, impaired balance, and orthopedic problems. Furthermore, maturation pattern differs between genders and different ethnic groups.

Although the findings for children and adolescents are still inconclusive [ ], some studies have shown that up to 5. Stabilization of overweight prevalence in French children between and SinceU. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Appetite 53 — J Adolesc Health.

X Close. Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health. This increase in tension could lead to long-term cardiovascular problems. Below, three of the more common health problems associated with childhood obesity are discussed, diabetes, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease.

External link. Living metoo. Balancing energy or calories consumed from foods and beverages with the calories burned through activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain. Various complications and co-morbidities of obesity are also explored.

Chapter 6. Living the nutrition debate. The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. Learn More. Parental feeding style is also significant.

  • A literature review of family in pediatric obesity management has been performed 6. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity has been the focus of long- standing theoretical and empirical endeavor.

  • Living Politics The Racism Debate.

  • Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services - Recommendations from an Expert Committee.

  • Weight-for-stature compared with body mass index-for-age growth charts for the United States from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Int Q Community Health Educ 24 —

  • Countries, such as Brazil, China and India have initiated monitoring programs associated with obesity and nutrition Pediatrics 75 —

Another of the diseases related to childhood obesity is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. For books published prior toplease click here. Not getting enough physical activity and spending too much time on sedentary activities such as watching television or other screen devices can lead to weight gain. Am J Matern Child Nurs. Overall, the WHO has been warning everyone for several years about the high prevalence of childhood obesity throughout the world. BMC Public Health. A study by conducted by Williams et al.

This article has been perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity by other articles in PMC. It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. Health Educ Res 21 — Adv Psychosom Med. This strategy has been found to maximize the consumption of healthy food and to minimize the consumption of unhealthy food 76 Walking the talk: fit WIC wellness programs improve self-efficacy in pediatric obesity prevention counseling.

These can be divided into genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Still, some after-school activities may influence sleep patterns more than others. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped relationship suggests that boys with BMIs at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction. The editors thank our obesity outstanding contributors from different parts of the United States and the world for their invaluable help in this publication. It emphasizes eating a variety of vegetables and fruits, whole grains, a variety of lean protein foods, and low-fat and fat-free dairy products. Many studies have examined the link between sugary drink consumption and weight and it has been continually found to be a contributing factor to being overweight. A research study concluded that overweight and obese children were four times more likely to report having problems at school than their normal weight peers. Various studies have concluded that excess weight increases blood pressure, which can cause hypertension in children.

A greater prevalence of ADHD has been found in obese children who also show binge diseasex behaviors [ 89 ]. Perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity — Still, in other studies, primary care providers have been found to have adequate knowledge about factors influencing the risk of overweight and obesity in children, but have nevertheless often felt that many barriers may preclude adequate interventions First, we included in our review not only findings of RCTs or controlled designs but also of open studies.

The latter youngsters tend to use adaptive perspectives on diseases and disorders childhood obesity methods for the regulation of self-esteem, such as reducing the importance of areas in which they are less competent and increasing the importance of domains in which they perform well [ 3750 ]. Therefore, considerable effort has been placed on identifying risk factors in order to target appropriate interventions. BMC Public Health 7 :1—5. Stabilization of overweight prevalence in French children between and These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity.

Although methods such as densitometry can be used in research practice, they are not feasible for clinical settings. E-mail: moc. Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. Future Child.

It is noteworthy that whereas many studies highlight the detrimental influence of advertisements on food-related habits of children, Ibesity et al. Int J Eat Disorder. Eur J Epidemiol 19 — One large-scale study in Canada found that children report preference for portions of French fries, meat, and potato chips that are larger, and for vegetable portions that are smaller, than what is recommended. Yancey A.

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Causes of Childhood Obesity It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. In: Bhalwar RJ, editor. Lifestyle interventions including nutrition, exercise, and supplements for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children.

It has been estimated that Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health. Other community factors include the affordability of healthy food options, peer and social supports, marketing and promotion, and policies that determine how a community is designed. Children can be cruel: the bullying that appears in the newspapers every week is proof of this.

Childhood obesity is a worldwide problem that can lead to diseases during adulthood. Curr Diab Rep. Contributing factors. It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor.

Pediatrics — While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight. Keywords: adolescence, childhood, family, media, obesity, overweight prevention, psychosocial Citation: Stein D, Weinberger-Litman SL and Latzer Y Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity. Levine MP, Smolak L. Prevalence of obesity in affluent school boys in Pune.

Abstract Childhood disrders has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Source of Support: Nil. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Current conceptualisation of body image dissatisfaction: Have we got it wrong? Gupta RK. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. J Adolesc Health.

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