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Oxidative stress and inflammation obesity epidemic – Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Pathologies: From an Adipocentric Point of View

Smith, and A. Owecki, A.

William Murphy
Thursday, March 7, 2019
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  • Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.

  • The clinical characteristics of subjects with ORG typically manifest with nephrotic or subnephrotic proteinuria, accompanied by renal insufficiency [ 8 — 10 ].

  • Bolca, T.

  • Among the characteristics of white adipose tissue, we found that it consists of different cell types such as fibroblasts, preadipocytes, mature adipocytes, and macrophages. Johnson, B.

  • Anso, R.

Devil's Triangle in Kidney Diseases: Oxidative Stress, Mediators, and Inflammation

This may also contribute to reduced adiposity, weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and several other beneficial cardiometabolic effects A rat study demonstrated that vitamin A reduce obesity, but only when supplemented to rats with mature adipocytes. Peroxiredoxin 4 improves insulin biosynthesis and glucose-induced insulin secretion in insulin-secreting INS-1E cells.

Pathophysiology of OS: Peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism, in which H 2 O 2 is formed as a byproduct, and despite that peroxisomes contain high catalase activity, they may cause OS under certain pathological conditions. It oidative produced both by macrophages and adipocytes [ 14 ], and by immune system cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and skeletal muscle [ 9 ]. Fukaya, T. The interaction with insulin induces autophosphorylation of the receptor at tyrosine residues TyrTyrand Tyr [ 31 ], and this initiates the recruitment and phosphorylation of the intracellular adapter proteins IRS. Consequences of long-term oral administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to wild-type mice. De Saint Front et al. Data Availability: All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article or in the data repositories listed in References.

ALSO READ: Majid Ezzati Obesity Lancet Journal Of Medicine

It is currently accepted that between 0. Schrader, P. Heme Oxygenases in Cardiovascular Health and Disease. Zhang, Q. Archuleta, A. Pathogenetically targeted method for conservative treatment of obesity and overweight correction.

Wang, H. Both lipid and protein intakes stimulate increased generation of reactive oxygen species by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Among adipokines, we find some inflammatory functions, such as Interleukin-6 IL-6 ; other adipokines entail the functions of regulating food intake, therefore exerting a direct effect on weight control. Li, F. Masters, E.

Poss, K. Galinier, A. Abstract Oxidative stress plays a pathological role in the development of various diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, or cancer. Cytochrome P microsomal reactions, which catalyze the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds by oxidoreducers, forming superoxide anion as a byproduct, which can cause OS.

Macronutrient Intake and the Obesity Epidemic

Kargi, M. Genes Nutr. On the contrary, fiber-rich meals exert anti-inflammatory effects that can significantly suppress the inflammation caused by HFHC meals when these meals are compared Both types of carotenoids are known for their functions in vision, but growing evidence suggests their anti-obesity activities Coronel et al. Polyphenols are a type of antioxidants that are commonly found in diets such as cranberries, red wine, green teas, and many others Fraga et al.

Adipokines and Metabolic Homeostasis 5. NAP D H oxidase-derived ROS can alter renal pressure natriuresis and blood pressure regulation through its effects on renal hemodynamics and renal tubular sodium oxidativ. Insulin resistance and diabetes Systemic arterial hypertension Ischemic heart diseases Obstructive sleep apnea, asthma Gout Peripheral vascular disease Psychology problems social stigmatization Rheumatological and orthopedics problems Oncology problems Liver failure. Oritani, I. Another possible mechanism of ROS formation during obesity is through diet. In addition, dietary factors were analyzed, and it was observed that fruit consumption is inversely associated with the level of lipid peroxidation.

Eppler et al. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 27 : lbesity To investigate the mechanisms leading to insulin resistance, one must first understand insulin signalling in the context of normal oxidative stress and inflammation obesity epidemic interactions that are observed in nondiabetic models. UPR is a genetically and biochemically controlled process that is initiated within the cells in order to counteract an imbalance in ER homeostasis. Kim et al. Such investigation will allow us to better understand the relationship between the intake of various macronutrients and the pathogenesis of mechanisms underlying the regulation of insulin sensitivity and resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation, the regulation of hunger and satiety and atherogenesis. Rizvi, S.

Maachi, C. Obesity leads to adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in white adipose tissue and increased levels in proinflammatory cytokines. It is considered that the mitochondria are the site within the cell where the largest amount of ROS are generated, causing defects in mitochondrial metabolism and diseases. Capel I, Dorrell H.

1. Introduction

A mixed anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory response associated with a high dose of corticosteroids. More recently, our work has also shown that certain foods are noninflammatory or anti-inflammatory and thus, do not interfere with insulin signaling. Fonseca, S. Sun, J. Nagorni, D.

This allows for speculation that supplementation inflammatiob NAC during the progression of obesity could reduce adipogenesis through elevation of glutathione level content. Circulation 7— Randomized trial 58 Several studies indicate that weight loss in obese patients considerably decreases oxidative stress and inflammation as evidenced by a major decrease in oxidative stress markers and decline of inflammatory cytokines []. Circulation ; 94 : - The anti-inflammatory action of insulin is relevant to postprandial inflammation, as endotoxemia and TLR-4 induction are a part of HFHC-induced inflammatory changes. Nogueira et al.

Meng, and J. Rachinsky, A. Gao, J. Analysis of oxidative markers in obesity subjects indicates that oxidative damage is associated with increased BMI and percentage of body fat [].

Publication types

Hohmeier, V. The kidney expresses abundant concentrations of the truncated isoform of the leptin receptor Ob-Ra, but only a small amount of the full-length receptor Ob-Rb [ 36 ]. When there is weight loss, circulating levels of the hormone are reduced, and in turn, these levels reduce the plasma levels of obesity-associated inflammatory markers [ 13 ].

  • Bjelakovic, and C. The actions of these antioxidants have a hallmark trait of being able to scavenge ROS reducing oxidative stress Figure 2.

  • Overconsumption of Oxygen Obesity increases the mechanical load and myocardial metabolism; therefore, oxygen consumption is increased. Adipose tissue is a secretory organ of great importance for the organism because the substances that it secretes meet the requirements for specific biological functions.

  • Expression of neuropeptide Y, omentin and visfatin in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in humans: Relation to endocrine and clinical parameters. Furthermore, in T2DM patients, many precise amino acid substitutions in IRS1 proteins are believed to alter protein function, but some of these substitutions have been controversial.

  • Central adiposity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and cardiovascular diseases

  • Ortis, D. Huang et al.

  • Praga, E. Smith, and A.

Under healthy conditions, the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family bind to and inhibit Bax and Bak oligomerization. Beck, K. Ju, C. Lee, K. The prevalence of obesity over the past years has been in constant progression leading the World Health Organization to consider it as an epidemic pathology. Kim, D.

Reduction in endotoxemia, oxidative and inflammatory stress, and insulin resistance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in patients with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Redox Signal 15 6— Diamond-Stanic, and E. However, for hypertension and hyperglycemic conditions one may benefit more from antioxidants that promote insulin sensitivity and lowered blood pressure such as HO Proc Nutr Soc. Mostefai et al. Obesity and Oxidative Stress ROS occur under physiological conditions and in many diseases and cause direct or indirect damage in different organs; thus, it is known that oxidative stress OS is involved in pathological processes such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and atherogenic processes.

1. Introduction

Weisinger, R. Bahouth, and M. IL-6 also influences glucose tolerance through negative regulation of visfatin; in addition, it antagonizes the secretion of adiponectin [ 11 ], and in animal model, it elevates TG levels by enhancing gluconeogensis and glycogenolysis and inhibiting glycogenesis. Bigler, L. InWeisinger et al.

  • Furthermore, the administration of fucoxanthin obestiy to decrease in both mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and blood leptin levels Beppu et al. In spite of its caloric content being entirely a result of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, orange juice is noninflammatory, largely because of its two major flavonoids: naringenin and hesperidin.

  • Shima, M. Kawase, and N.

  • Haymond, R. Antiatherogenic effects of vitamin E: the search for the Holy Grail.

  • Central adiposity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and cardiovascular diseases Bolca, T.

  • Thus, the intake of glucose leads to oxidative and inflammatory stress and a prothrombotic state.

  • It also prevented the deterioration in insulin sensitivity observed in the inulin-control group. Reprints and Permissions.

Analysis of oxidative markers in oxidative stress and inflammation obesity epidemic subjects indicates that oxidative damage epideic associated with increased BMI and percentage of body fat []. Toubro, A. Prevention of overweight and obesity: How effective is the current public health approach. Cao, Y. Studies with the adiponectin knockout mouse provide evidence that adiponectin can regulate podocyte function and thus contribute to the initial development of albuminuria [ 3753 ]. Weight loss also ameliorates the low-grade inflammation state that leads to glomerular dysfunction in obesity.

In an attempt to evaluate which component ihflammation the HFHC meal is responsible for the induction of oxidative stress, endotoxemia, inflammation and an increase in the expression of SOCS-3 and inflammation obesity toll-like receptor 4 TLR-4it has been shown that saturated fat taken as cream induces these all while glucose induces oxidative stress, inflammation and SOCS-3 but not endotoxemia or an increase in TLR-4 expression. Dysregulated systemic metabolic parameters will be moreover reviewed as contributors and amplifiers of obesity-associated oxidative stress. Kuznetsov, N. Glucose administration to nondiabetic subjects also induces other acute inflammatory changes at the cellular and molecular levels for at least 3 hours 911with more intense and prolonged effects in individuals with obesity with impaired glucose tolerance Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Two faces of vitamin E in the lung.

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals. Frohnert, E. Kuno, M. This is partly attributable to the marked reductions in caloric intake 81coupled with the reductions in mediators of oxidative and inflammatory stress.

Oxidative Stress and Inflammatkon Oxidative stress oxidative stress and inflammation obesity epidemic adipocyte seems to be responsible for the low-grade proinflammatory state commonly observed in obesity []. Takahashi et al. In animals with obesity, there is a huge increase in white fat deposits due to the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of their adipocytes [ 8 ]. In human, it is produced largely by macrophages and expressed in adipose tissue predominantly by nonadipocyte resident inflammatory cells [ 64 — 66 ]. Moon, and H.

N-acetylcysteine reduces markers of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ollerenshaw, and R. In mice with PrxV knockout on high-fat diet, progression to obesity and enhanced adipogenesis was far more likely than mice without the gene knockout. Child Obes. Iturrioz, R.

International Journal of Nephrology

Bhat et al. Kopp, S. Rachinsky, A. Body composition phenotypes in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Yang et al.

Li, J. Introduction The association of obesity with chronic low grade inflammation and insulin resistance is well established Hotamisligil et al. Kaneto, Y. Szegezdi, S. Eizirik, M. Firstly, alcohol Calories does not induce oxidative and inflammatory stress Dhindsa et al.

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Glucose challenge stimulates reactive oxygen species ROS generation by leucocytes. Saka, A. Lu, Inflammatiion. Evidence for structural specificity of the tocopherol molecule. However, to compensate for the elevation in free iron from heme degradation, HO-1 upregulates ferritin synthesis that is capable of storing free iron preventing possible initiation of otherwise harmful inflammatory cascades Balla et al. Both of these contributions could indicate a theoretical route of research to determine if any correlation exists between NAC and increased total daily energy expenditure in obese individuals which may be combined with proper diet, decreasing the total degree of inflammation by reducing adiposity and fat mass.

Piva, M. Nitric Oxide in Obesity Nitric oxide NO is a physiological regulator of diverse functions in several tissues including cardiovascular, neuromuscular, neurological, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and renal. Monteiro R, Azevedo I. When obesity persists for a long time, antioxidant sources can be depleted, decreasing the activity of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase SOD and catalase CAT [ 6 ]. Colucci et al. Lord et al. Complications-generated Oxidative Stress in Obesity Obesity and the consequent production of OS have been associated with the development of other pathologies Table 1the most straightforward of which is the metabolic syndrome.

Insulin inhibits the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by human aortic endothelial cells through stimulation of nitric oxide. Prolonged reactive oxygen species generation and Nuclear Factor- kB activation after a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal in the obese. Since the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance is a dynamic one and weight gain leads to increased resistance and weight loss to a reduction in insulin resistance, it is possible that macronutrient intake may be crucial and central to these relationships. De Saint Front et al.

They also compete for lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase COXthereby decreasing pro-inflammatory type 2 eicosanoids and type -4 leukotrienes and increasing formation of prostaglandin E3 PGE3prostacyclin I3 PGI3 and thrombxane A2 Knapp, ; James et al. Lairez, D. On the other hand, it has been postulated that in the early stages of our evolution, highly effective systems were developed to collect the limited energy available, leading to the appearance of adipose tissue. Mao and J.

Peng, ad Y. The decrease of total energy intake by avoidance of energy-dense foods from highly refined carbohydrates and fatty meals from fast foods, a reduction in total alcohol intake, and an increase in water intake has been shown to help in weight maintenance Polyphenols appear as exciting molecules but further exploration would be needed to better understand their bioavailability and their molecular targets, in particular in term of genes modulated via nutragenomic approaches. Heme oxygenase-1, oxidation, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Funahashi, I. Addabbo, M.

REVIEW article

Vasan et al. Apelin is produced in proportion to the amount of fat and possesses anorectic properties accompanied by increased body temperature and locomotor activity, as well as inhibiting the secretion of glucose-dependent insulin [ 11 ]. Wener, and T. Imig, J. Frossi, M.

  • Foh et al. Apelin receptors agonists are currently under development and have already proven their efficiency as vasodilator in mice [ ].

  • Hypoxia would be produced during the overgrowth of adipose tissue during obesity.

  • Read the winning articles. Kuznetsov, N.

  • Glucose intake induces an increase in activator protein 1 and early growth response 1 binding activities, in the expression of tissue factor and matrix metalloproteinase in mononuclear cells, and in plasma tissue factor and matrix metalloproteinase concentrations.

The free iron that is released from heme degradation possess inflammatory and cytotoxic characteristics Dutra and Bozza, Interestingly, evolving evidence inflammatikn that Sirtuin 1 SIRT1a mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent deacetylase enzyme, is required for some of the key metabolic alterations seen with caloric restrictions. Qatanani and M. Although there is a long list of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants that have been investigated previously to scavenge free radicals, however, the mechanistic action of each antioxidant is distinct in terms of the pathways they inhibit or stimulate. Both lipid and protein intakes stimulate increased generation of reactive oxygen species by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells. However, the oral bioavailability of glutathione is controversial Allen and Bradley, ; Richie et al. Perrot and M.

  • Impaired Insulin-Signalling Pathways Insulin resistance does play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic metabolic diseases that are proinflammatory in nature, such as obesity, T2DM, brain dysfunction, and heart disease [ 28 ]. Thus resveratrol could also potentially provide a means for preventing post prandial inflammation.

  • Vincent and A. NO is an important anti-atherogenic agent and it inhibits platelet activation and aggregation, leukocyte chemotaxis, and endothelial adhesion [ 43 ].

  • Bereczki, D. However, these adipokines induce the production of reactive oxygen species ROSgenerating a process known as oxidative stress OS.

  • S65—S68, Inflammatory Markers A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity-related glomerulopathy is associated with upregulation of inflammatory mediators [ 75 ].

  • Lipid aldehydes generated following lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated acyl chains by have also been shown to interfere epidemicc insulin signaling. Mitochondria provide the energy required for nearly all cellular processes that ultimately permit the carrying out of physiological functions; additionally, they play a central role in cell death by the mechanism of apoptosis.

Adipokines and Metabolic Homeostasis 5. Epidenic obesity has long been recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, newer research points to obesity as an important risk factor for chronic kidney diseases CKDs [ 2 — 4 ]. Shima, M. Nagaev, L. However, both those cell types increase their expression of extracellular matrix in response to leptin.

View inflammation obesity epidemic Google Scholar S. Related articles. Kullisaar, C. In human, it is produced largely by macrophages and expressed in adipose tissue predominantly by nonadipocyte resident inflammatory cells [ 64 — 66 ]. It has been reported that obesity may induce systemic OS and, in turn, OS is associated with an irregular production of adipokines, which contributes to the development of the metabolic syndrome [ 24 ]. Adiponectin expression and secretion is unique to differentiated adipocytes [ 8 ] and has regulatory actions on energy homeostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory action [ 2 ]. Suganami, S.

Introduction

Leptin Leptin is a kDa-peptide hormone encoded by obese ob gene that is mainly produced by adipose tissue. More related articles. Human adipose tissue is divided into brown adipose tissue, which possesses multilocular adipocytes with abundant mitochondria that express high amounts of uncoupling protein 1 UCP-1which is responsible for the thermogenic activity of this tissue [ 8 ], and white adipose tissue, which is responsible for fat storage.

Leptin stimulates central T-cell production and a peripheral shift in favor of T helper Th 1 adaptive immune responses proinflammatory as opposed to Th2 link depression obesity in children anti-inflammatory [ 38 ]. Hansen, D. R76—R83, Buckels, I. Adiponectin is a 30 kDa adipocyte-derived protein hormone encoded by the adipose most abundant gene transcript 1 APM1[ 47 ] which plays a role in the suppression of inflammation-associated metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue dysfunction, as occurs in obesity and insulin resistance, is characterized by the activation of an inflammatory signal. It is known that oxidative stress is involved in pathological processes of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.

Foh et al. Payne, H. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase INO reduce NO production and prevent the decrease in insulin secretion caused by free fatty acids [ 42 ]. Wolfram TIsmail-Beigi F.

Consumption of resveratrol alters the composition of gut microbiota by increasing symbiotic bacteria like Bacteroidetes and decreasing opportunistic pathogens like Escherichia coli. This was evidenced by recent studies that revealed treatment with NAC improved plasma insulin levels, increased insulin sensitivity across multiple tissues and increased motor activity in murine models of obesity Lasram et al. Redox Signal 15 6— De Bittencourt, and J.

Picklo Sr. MacIntosh, A. Crujeiras, D.

The possible mechanisms of obesity-related oxidative stress include increased oxygen consumption and subsequent production of free radicals derived from the increase in mitochondrial respiration, diminished oxidative stress and inflammation obesity epidemic capacity, fatty acid oxidation, lipid oxidizability, and cell injury causing increased rates of free radical formation [, ]. Valeri, J. The activity of SOD and glutathione peroxidase GPx in individuals with obesity is significantly lower compared with that in healthy persons, having implications for the development of obesity-related health problems [ 37 ]. Brodsky et al.

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Farb, S. Lacquemant, and P. This cytokine is involved in the genesis of inflammation and contributes to obesity-associated insulin resistance [ 80 — 82 ]. Chrysohoou, D. Imig, J. Oxidative stress in adipocyte seems to be responsible for the low-grade proinflammatory state commonly observed in obesity [].

  • Practically, many therapeutical strategies used currently to treat obesity-associated metabolic disorders have the potential to decrease inlfammation stress, which might, at least partially, participate in their beneficial effects. Cumulative lines of evidence have demonstrated the beneficial role of polyphenol, found in cranberry extract, to improve diet induced obese phenotype in murine model.

  • In inflammation, leptin acts directly on macrophages to increase phagocytic activity, and proinflammatory cytokine production also exerts an effect on T-cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and endothelial cells. Qasim, and M.

  • Newsholme and P.

  • Antioxidant supplements reduced oxidative stress and stabilized liver function tests but did not reduce inflammation in a randomized controlled trial in obese children and adolescents.

  • Analysis of oxidative markers in obesity subjects indicates that oxidative damage is associated with increased BMI and percentage of body fat []. Kim, K.

  • This combination, in addition, prevented the fall in the antioxidant-enhancing transcription factor, Nrf-2, and suppressed the increase in its inhibitor, Keap-1, which is induced by HFHC meals. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Firstly, alcohol Calories does not induce oxidative and inflammatory stress Dhindsa et al. Barone, L. Haber, S.

Habibi, M. Learn More. Recent clinical studies show a negative association of adiponectin in obese patients, [ 5253 ] suggesting that adiponectin may play a key role in the development of obesity-related albuminuria and alteration of renal function. Adipsin appears to regulate the rate at which fatty acids from Lipoprotein lipase LPL are taken up by adipocytes and subsequently converted into TG.

This suggests that resistin may play an important role in obesity and obesity-associated disease by triggering the release of other proinflammatory cytokines. Cooper, and D. NO is an important anti-atherogenic agent and it inhibits platelet activation and aggregation, leukocyte chemotaxis, and endothelial adhesion [ 43 ].

Sharma et al. Patel, P. Park, and R. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Quigley, A. Lan, M.

Nikolic-Paterson, F. Kurokawa, H. Lannaud-Bournoville, M. Bruckert et al. Excessive fat accumulation also stimulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH oxidase activity, which contributes to ROS production [ ].

McTernan, C. We also found a positive relationship between lipid peroxidation level and plasma cholesterol concentration [ 29 ]. Tanaka, I. Download other formats More.

Nishizawa, T. Bertolotti, H. Ohashi, and G. These effects contribute to counteracting oxidative-stress induced dysregulation in adipocytes. Peroxiredoxin 4 improves insulin biosynthesis and glucose-induced insulin secretion in insulin-secreting INS-1E cells. Effects of a dietary oxidized fat on cholesterol in plasma and lipoproteins and the susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to lipid peroxidation in guinea pigs fed diets with different concentrations of vitamins E and C.

UCP-3, which in humans link depression obesity in children found only in skeletal muscle, appears to exert an effect on heat issue, but protects the mitochondria of lipotoxicity in cases of increased concentrations of FFA in the matrix, because it leads these to the intermembrane space. Weight loss improves renal function as shown by reduced levels of serum creatinine and improved creatinine clearance [ ]. Lipid-rich diets are also capable of generating ROS because they can alter oxygen metabolism. The mitochondrial respiratory chain. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Fundamentally, obesity is the result of excessive energy consumption compared with the energy expended; in children, increased consumption of fats and sugars and lack of physical activity have been linked with obesity [ 2 ].

This clearly demonstrates the induction of a prothrombotic state, in oxiative to the oxidative and inflammatory stress seen following the intake of glucose. Conclusions Adipose tissue is a secretory organ of great importance for the organism because the substances that it secretes meet the requirements for specific biological functions. Chen, F. Gorzelniak et al.

Am J Clin Nutr a ; 80 : 51 - J Clin Endocrinol Metab a ; 86 : - These data point out a novel regulatory mechanism complementing the early steps in insulin amplification signaling. Moore, J. Circulating mononuclear cells in the obese are in a proinflammatory state.

Oxidatuve releases many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. Early experimental obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Bigler, L. Ikeda, S. Reynolds, D. Adipose tissue dysfunction as well as lipotoxicity comprise two mechanisms that explain the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance IR [ 1123 ]. Delattre, B.

Ang II-induced production of ROS is therefore an important initiator and contributor of oxidative stress-associated obesity. Thirdly, a high fiber and fruit meal based on AHA guidelines does not induce either oxidative or inflammatory stress when compared to an equicaloric HFHC Calorie meal Ghanim et al. Nakatani, D.

In addition, dietary factors were analyzed, and it was obesjty that fruit consumption is inversely associated with the level of lipid peroxidation. Hayden, J. Gorzelniak et al. Oritani, I. Eldridge, and R. Singh, B. In order to be secreted by adipose tissue, leptin circulates in plasma bound to plasma proteins, entering by diffusion into the CNS, through capillary binding in the median eminence and by saturable transport across the choroid plexus receiver.

Colombo, M. Xu, B. Engeli, P. Supporting experiments that mimicked the milieu of T2DM showed that high glucose and high insulin in combination reduced insulin binding to the IR in adipocytes [ 54 ]. Cruzat and J. External link. Fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells according to differentiation stage and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes.

Polyphenols appear as exciting molecules but further exploration would be needed to better understand their bioavailability and their molecular targets, in particular aand term of genes modulated via nutragenomic approaches. Finally, exposition of adipocytes to high ROS levels suppresses adiponectin expression and secretion [ 1464 ], an adipokine which displays insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties for review, [ 76 ]. Mediterranean diets The Lyon Heart Study demonstrated that the intake of the Mediterranean diet led to a marked reduction in fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and the combined outcome of those two and unstable angina, stroke and pulmonary embolism de Lorgeril et al. Associations of whole-grain, refined-grain, and fruit and vegetable consumption with risks of all-cause mortality and incident coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ARIC Study.

  • Soares, M.

  • John, M.

  • Search Menu. These key membrane-bound receptors are present in cells that store surplus carbohydrate in the form of glycogen liver and muscle or as triacylglycerol adipose tissue.

  • Higdon J, Frei B. Visfatin—A review.

Complications-generated Oxidative Stress in Obesity Obesity and the consequent production of OS have been stresss with the development of other pathologies Table 1the most straightforward of which is the metabolic syndrome. Yoshizaki, T. Gulluyan, G. This cytokine is involved in the genesis of inflammation and contributes to obesity-associated insulin resistance [ 80 — 82 ].

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Obesity and the consequent production of OS have been associated with the development of other pathologies Table 1the most straightforward of which is the metabolic syndrome. Kolodgie et al. Quigley, J. Toubro, A. View at: Google Scholar T. Stern, M. Ziyadeh and G.

Argani, B. Youssef, and L. Morales et al. IL-6 is another important proinflammatory mediator systemically secreted from adipose tissue and locally produced in the kidney.

Kono, K. Steppan, S. The sensitivity of CRP and other biomarkers of oxidative inflammation obesity epidemic are higher in individuals oxidatkve obesity and correlate directly with BMI and the percentage of body fat, LDL oxidation, and TG levels [ 25 ]; in contrast, antioxidant defense markers are lower according to the amount of body fat and central obesity [ 2627 ]. Keaney Jr.

Osawa et al. In this paper, we focus on inflammation and oxidative stress in the progression of obesity-related glomerulopathy and possible interventions to prevent kidney injury in obesity. Inflammatory Markers A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity-related glomerulopathy is associated with upregulation of inflammatory mediators [ 75 ].

Peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism, in which H 2 O 2 is formed as a byproduct, and despite that peroxisomes contain high catalase activity, they may cause OS under certain pathological conditions. Egido, M. The related health-care costs are also substantial. Kolodgie et al. Esler, and G. Nagaev, L.

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Interestingly, evolving evidence suggests that Sirtuin 1 SIRT1a mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent deacetylase enzyme, is required for some of the key metabolic alterations seen with caloric restrictions. The increasing global burden of diet-related metabolic disorders, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis, poses substantial concerns. Despite the differing compartmentalization of each forms of SOD in the mitochondria, cytoplasm and extracellular matrix, they all share the function of neutralizing ROS Miao and St Clair, Police, F. Adipose tissue serves not only as an energy storage organ, but also as an endocrine organ. One possible explanation for adipose tissue producing adipokines and acute phase proteins is the consideration of hypoxia as the trigger.

Kyrou, E. Related articles. UCP-1 is involved in the control of adaptive thermogenesis and weight control. Shimabukuro et al. Leptin also has proinflammatory actions through its interaction with mediators of innate and adaptive immunity and CRP [ 38 ]. Kramer, A. Toubro, A.

Jennette, L. Administration of the anti-resistin antibody improves blood sugar and insulin action in mice with diet-induced obesity. Abstract Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and can be defined as an increase in the accumulation of body fat.

Adipose tissue dysfunction, as occurs in obesity and insulin resistance, is characterized by the activation of an inflammatory signal. View at: Google Scholar A. Furukawa, T. Chronic inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Ishikawa et al. Jaimes, P.

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Kinghorn et al. Wheeldon, and A. The overall evidence indicates that, compared with macrophages, fat cells have a capacity equal to or greater than inflammatory cells, and it has been observed that the increase of the factors released by adipocytes may be reflected in systemic inflammation [ 47 ]. Inflammation in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity causes chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and thus contributes to the development of systemic metabolic dysfunction that is associated with obesity-related disorders and renal disease [ 24 — 27 ]. Patel, P. External link. Conclusions: Eight weeks of taurine supplementation associated with nutritional counseling is able to increase adiponectin levels and to decrease markers of inflammation high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipid peroxidation TBARS in obese women.

Thus, supplementation with antioxidants would reduce obrsity risk of complications related with obesity and OS [ 41 ]. Obesity is associated with increased leptin levels; as a result, it has been postulated that the apparent decrease in anorexigenic effects and weight loss are the result of a mechanism of resistance to it [ 11 ]. Sanchez-Nino et al. Kasiske, S.

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