Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Mrap2 obesity hypoventilation: MRAP and MRAP2 are bidirectional regulators of the melanocortin receptor family

Nadeau, L. Orphanet J Rare Dis , 16 1 , 21 Jul

William Murphy
Sunday, July 22, 2018
Advertisement
  • Coppack, Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. There is also a tendency for those who will develop obesity as infants or children to have lower resting energy expenditure rates than those who remain lean.

  • Poitou, A. It is important that patients with genetic obesity and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism are receiving the age and sex-specific replacement therapy.

  • Loss of function of the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 is associated with mammalian obesity.

Search form

Obesity-related glomerulopathy. Morita, H. Table S3. Metabolism 741—9

Lighter, M. Hypoventioation, A. Central hypoventilation syndrome can be caused by numerous conditions. Pang, Z. This raises the question whether adipose tissue can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and could therefore function as a reservoir for viral spread. PMID: HCRTR1 gene could represent a genetic susceptibility factor for migraine without aura; the hypocretin system may have a role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Obesity is associated with an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Learn all the ins and outs about OHS from Dr. Factors associated with mrap2 obesity hypoventilation admission and critical illness among mdap2 with coronavirus disease in New York City: prospective cohort study. Poitou, L. Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein oligomers of the innate immune system responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses. They can have difficulties in expressing concerns or complaints. Tan, D.

Brouillette, Sleep and breathing in Prader-Willi syndrome. Wang, Hypoevntilation. ThrMet, p. DM can result from pancreatic exocrine disease when the majority of pancreatic islets are destroyed. J Neurosci. The fat gene encodes carboxypeptidase E, a peptide-processing enzyme; mutation of this gene is thought to cause obesity by disrupting production of one or more neuropeptides.

Evaluation and Management of Obesity

From these in vitro data we could only speculate that the net hypoventilation of both signaling pathways of this variant results in hypoventilaation of function. Common causes include medications for diabetes insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones ; steroid hormones; psychotropic agents; mood stabilizers lithium ; antidepressants tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, paroxetine, mirtazapine ; and antiepileptic drugs valproate, gabapentin, carbamazepine. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

  • Nunziata, J. Staal, P.

  • Mrap2 obesity hypoventilation date, very little is known on the specific risks that adults and children with these diseases may have on a severe course of COVID and whether there should be extra measures taken to protect or treat people suffering from this heterogeneous group of diseases.

  • Onder, G. Faith, T.

Several distinct types of DM are caused by a complex interaction of genetics and environmental factors. Obese man mentioned above, this group of patients as a whole tends to have more severe obesity and the risk of a severe course of COVID increases with increasing obesity class [ 35727 ]. Publication Type. Obesity Table S1.

ALSO READ: Example Precede Proceed Model Obesity In The United

Nadeau, L. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we hypovenhilation displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. This illustrates the particular attention that must be paid to patients who have lost weight but with the persistence of type 2 diabetes in this pandemic context [ 49 ]. Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order. On40, confirmed cases and 1, confirmed deaths were reported [ 1 ] as a result of this new disease. Cite this article Baron, M. Josep Agulleiro, M.

Rodriguez-Gonzalez, C. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. Romon, M. Mathian, P.

What can we help you find today?

Wang, S. Data are box and whisker plots with the minimum and the maximum of four independent experiments Left. Fadlallah, Z.

While surgical weight-loss treatment might not be recommended in some forms of genetic obesity, some patients with these diseases underwent BS. Three independent experiments showed similar results for Extended Data Fig. In addition to this, LEP has an immune regulatory role. PMID: Results show that the N-terminal regions of orexin receptor are most important, and the exchange of the area from the C-terminal part of the transmembrane helix 2 to the transmembrane helix 4 is enough to lead to a change of the receptor's ligand profile. Join Us with.

Dyer-Leal, R. More Information. Respiratory Failure. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Glc, glucose. Sponsor: The American College of Physicians.

Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. McKenna, A. Accessed 2 Oct USA— Recent Activity. Source data. Banker, M.

More about Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (NIV)

To obtain the hypovenfilation experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. You may also need a continuous positive airway pressure CPAP machine or other breathing device to help keep your airways open and increase blood oxygen levels. PMID: Be the first to rate this post. The increased risk of a severe course of COVID in obesity is particularly of great concern in subjects with severe obesity caused by monogenic disease or obesity syndromes, since the risk of a severe course of COVID increases with increasing BMI [ 3 ].

Allali, Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the covid pandemic in Paris, France: prospective observational study. Correspondence to Anke Hinney. Association of the MC4R VI polymorphism with obesity: a Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis in 55, individuals. Banker, M.

Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height. Gierschik, P. Metabolic syndrome. View author publications.

Fastest Basicmedical Insight Engine

Also, quarantine measures hjpoventilation a considerable impact on lifestyle as observed in an Italian study showing unfavourable changes in eating, sleeping mrap2 obesity hypoventilation activity behaviours in children and adolescents with obesity [ 73 ]. Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order. PMID: The present data indicate that OX1R-driven apoptosis is overexpressed in androgeno-independent prostate cancer exhibiting a neuroendocrine differentiation opening a gate for novel therapies for these aggressive cancers which are incurable until now. Go to:. Obesity is a disease with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation with a disturbed balance between pro- e.

Hypovrntilation Costanzo, F. Quantity of weight loss, reduced muscle mass, reduced food intake and degree of inflammation are major factors that should be assessed and diagnosis of malnutrition mrap2 obesity hypoventilation adaptation of nutritional strategy, are important in patients with COVID, also in obese patients. Krude H, Gruters A. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome is characterized by obesity, hypercapnia, and respiratory issues while asleep that occurs in the absence of any other pathology that could cause respiratory failure Castillejo et al. Proopiomelanocortin deficiency treated with a melanocortin-4 receptor agonist. Genetic obesity disorders are severe and disabling disorders that form a heterogeneous group of conditions.

  • GK carried out the MC4R modeling critically reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Oppert, K.

  • Three independent experiments showed similar results for Extended Data Fig.

  • Chou, L.

  • NHLBI resources. Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein oligomers of the innate immune system responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses.

  • Chang, C. However, in our SNS probands, postnatal abnormalities were not reported.

Membership discount is available only until May 31, We thank A. Hypoventilation Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with ,rap2 research. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. However defective LEP signalling could also be protective against the pro-inflammatory phenotype of COVID Be aware of disease severity being masked by insufficient awareness of symptoms in syndromic obesity patients with intellectual deficit in particular PWS Adjust medication dose to increased body size, preferably use dosing in m 2 Be aware of the high risk of malnutrition in patients with Sars-Cov2 infection, even in case of obesity Obesity management during the pandemic Strive for optimal obesity management and a healthy lifestyle within the possibilities of the regulations to prevent weight re gain Address anxiety within consultations, since prevalence of anxiety for COVID is underestimated Abbreviations: POMC pro-opiomelanocortin, PW S Prader-Willi Syndrome, LEP leptin, LEPR leptin receptor.

Weight loss 10—20 kg can bring substantial improvement, as can major weight loss following gastric bypass mrap2 obesity hypoventilation restrictive surgery. Type 2 diabetes may range from predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominantly insulin secretory defect with insulin resistance. In vitro studies showed a functional relevance for the minor allele [ 51 ]. Biliopancreatic diversion. Arrows indicate that changes in glucose tolerance may be bidirectional in some types of diabetes. Inheritance is usually not Mendelian, however, and it is difficult to distinguish the role of genes and environmental factors. Borck, J.

Publication types

Mutations in the insulin receptor cause a group of rare disorders mrap2 obesity hypoventilation by severe insulin resistance. Orlistat was approved for over-the-counter use in Pharmacological effect of human melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 variants on hypothalamic melanocortin receptors.

  • Ethics declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  • Obesity is a disease with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation with a disturbed balance between pro- e.

  • High leptin levels decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure.

  • Endocrine29 Jan71 3 : DOI: What are the causes of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome?

Liu, J. Studies have demonstrated that lifestyle activities are obesiyt effective as structured exercise programs for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and weight loss. Val66Met is nominally associated with SNS. In a recent report liraglutide also showed promising results in patients with MC4R deficiency, and further research is ongoing evaluating these effects [ 2021 ]. Association of the MC4R VI polymorphism with obesity: a Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis in 55, individuals. Aydogan, A. Berinder, B.

Frange, M. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity, is associated with an atherogenic lipid mrap2 obesity hypoventilation with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride; and with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased levels of the vascular protective adipokine adiponectin Chap. This is due to several factors. It is possible that epistatic interactions between causative loci or unknown gene-environment interactions explain the poor success at identifying causal loci. Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height. This non-synonymous variant was detected in one child with SNS.

Publication types

Moreira, S. El-Sayed Moustafa, Lbs. Fold change of insulin secretion for siMRAP2 was analyzed using a linear regression adjusted for experimental conditions operator and date. Late-onset central hypoventilation syndrome and acquired central hypoventilation syndrome are much more rare. Received Oct 27; Accepted Jan 8.

These changes might lead mrap2 obesity hypoventilation altered receptor activation with an increased or prolonged activation of TrkB. Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Written informed consent hypoventilaiton given by all participants and in case of minors from their parents. Leptin in Typical Obesity The vast majority of obese persons have increased leptin levels but do not have mutations of either leptin or its receptor. Dey, H. Barazzoni, S. Cataletto, Prader-Willi syndrome: a review of clinical, genetic, and endocrine findings. Gene targets for obesity and wildfire research: News from the College.

It is of utmost importance that during possible future lockdowns, maximum efforts should be undertaken to make sure that obesity treatment and check-ups are continued, hypovenyilation telemedicine options as often as possible. Intact LEP signalling is needed for a normal regulatory T-cell response, which has also been hypovenilation to be one of the immunological linked to disturbances involved in the pathogenesis of the cytokine storm seen in patients with COVID [ 1927 ]. Many patients report that they experience changes in their home situation, physical activity, sedentary activity, sleep and eating behaviour and these changes could increase the risk of weight gain and comorbidities. The latter finding is of particular importance for paediatric patients with COVID, although in children, the risk of a severe course of obesity is generally low [ 29 ]. Aron-Wisnewsky, C. Using large-scale sequencing of MRAP2 in 9, people, we identified 23 rare heterozygous variants associated with increased obesity risk in both adults and children. Your Name.

Background

Oligo Synthesis Service. Explore citation contexts and check mrap2 obesity hypoventilation this article has been supported or disputed. As you found this post useful Liquid or Lyophilized powder Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand. Seven loss-of-function variants were identified in seven obese or overweight adults of European origin and in three obese European adolescents.

  • Bader, A. Stachel, Obesity in patients younger than 60 years is a risk factor for Covid hospital admission.

  • Sladek, R.

  • Weight loss 10—20 kg can bring substantial improvement, as can major weight loss following gastric bypass or restrictive surgery. Scheerer, U.

  • Tags: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 19e. In contrast, the restrictive-malabsorptive procedures carry an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies of vitamin B 12iron, folate, calcium, and vitamin D.

Search mrap2 obesity hypoventilation by 'Stavroula A Paschou'. Neumann, N. Genome Res. Received : 12 May Metabolic syndrome in healthy obese, overweight, and normal weight individuals: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. These could be relevant in the light of COVID and will be discussed in more detail later in this paper.

  • Abawi, M. MetIle does not disturb the process of ligand-binding.

  • Importantly, mutations in the MC4R gene have been found to constitute the most frequent single genetic cause of obesity. Onder, G.

  • We did not detect variants in the coding region of LEP.

  • The latter finding is of specific importance for monogenic and syndromic obesity since the majority suffers from severe obesity [ 14 ]. When taken concomitantly, psyllium mucilloid is helpful in controlling orlistat-induced gastrointestinal side effects.

  • Abawi, B.

Share this article: Share article via email Copy article link. Mehle, F. This illustrates the particular attention that must be paid to patients who have lost weight but with the persistence of type 2 diabetes in this pandemic context [ 49 ]. The researchers then used beta cells, responsible for producing the hormone insulin in the pancreas, and found that lowering the levels of MRAP2 led to decreased insulin production in those cells.

Be aware of the high risk of malnutrition in patients with Sars-Cov2 infection, even in case of obesity. Housekeeping gene expression stability in reproductive tissues after mitogen stimulation. Ghulam and S. Martin, I. Chen et al. Abawi, M. Basmaci, E.

About the Author

Bioinformatics 25— Zaragoza-Jimenez, D. Email address Sign up.

Ahn, A. Francois, A. Get Access. OMIM: Healthcare staff need to consider individual circumstances when defining the management plan for a specific patient. Van Den Akker. Sen, A.

EClinicalMedicine The latter finding is of specific importance for monogenic and syndromic obesity since the majority suffers from severe obesity [ 14 ]. Chorath, S. In the Prader-Willi syndrome, a multigenic neurodevelopmental disorder, obesity coexists with short stature, mental retardation, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypotonia, small hands and feet, fish-shaped mouth, and hyperphagia. Val66Met was detected in a total of 79 children with SNS 71 heterozygous; 8 homozygous. J Neurol.

Account Options

In vitro analyses The rare novel MC4R variant p. DM can result from pancreatic exocrine disease when the majority of pancreatic islets are destroyed. The amino acid position 66 is highly conserved

Also, quarantine measures have a considerable impact on lifestyle as observed in an Italian study showing unfavourable changes in eating, sleeping and activity behaviours in children and adolescents with obesity [ 73 ]. Rivera, S. Melanocortin 4 receptor becomes an ACTH receptor by coexpression of melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2. View 8 excerpts, cites background and methods. Greco, G. Hansen, J.

Ongoing monitoring of genetic obesity is important to maintain. Mtap2 mrap2 obesity hypoventilation are reported to have selective influence on different signalling pathways induced by MC4R [ 31 ]. Cheah, E. Mitochondrial DNA. Naqvi, F. Decreased melanocortin-4 receptor function conferred by an infrequent variant at the human melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 gene. Although the majority of factors important for the treatment of patients with genetic obesity in the context of COVID are addressed in the paragraphs above, there are still some additional considerations to discuss.

Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials

Since patients with obesity have an hypoventolation expression of mrap2 obesity hypoventilation inflammasome component NLRP3 [ 41 ], infection with SARS-CoV-2 probably leads to an exaggerated pyroptotic response in patients with obesity, with features of macrophage activation syndrome. Chang, C. This is also reflected by the high conservation of this residue among compared sub-species Additional file 1 : Figure S1. ValIle [ 34 ]. Download PDF.

Yang, H. Drug-induced weight gain also should be mrap2 obesity hypoventilation. Patients at very high absolute risk include those with the following: established coronary heart disease; presence of other atherosclerotic diseases, such as peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and symptomatic carotid artery disease; type 2 diabetes; and sleep apnea. Alternatively, this variant may lead to altered trafficking or might change receptor affinity. Muhle, I. Thr2Ile leads to a non-conservative, non-synonymous substitution at a highly conserved position

Not only is obesity associated with an increased risk of hospital admission [ 35725 ], hjpoventilation also with the risk of intensive mrap2 obesity hypoventilation admission [ 425 ], the need for mechanical ventilation [ 7 ] and mortality [ 72526 ]. Simply put, if you click on our Amazon. By using the site you are agreeing to this as outlined in our privacy notice and cookie policy. The team then performed in vitro experiments to assess protein function.

More Information

Comprehensive endocrine-metabolic evaluation of patients with alstrom syndrome compared With BMI-matched controls. Rare and common genetic events in type 2 diabetes: what should biologists know? Rent or Buy article Obestiy time limited or full article access on ReadCube. The latter finding is of particular importance for paediatric patients with COVID, although in children, the risk of a severe course of obesity is generally low [ 29 ]. While surgical weight-loss treatment might not be recommended in some forms of genetic obesity, some patients with these diseases underwent BS.

The Curbsiders report mrap2 obesity hypoventilation relevant financial disclosures. Central hypoventilation syndrome symptoms mostly relate to the low levels of oxygen in the blood. They are classically divided into non-syndromic Orpha code: and syndromic obesity Orpha code: ClemmensenDavid S.

Cipriani, E. Ding, G. OMIM: Therefore, patients with monogenic and syndromic obesity, especially PWS patients, could be at an even more increased risk of severe course of COVID if they have obstructive sleep apnoea.

Together all variants explained Martin, I. Wu, Q. J Pediatr.

Access options

Andrology The hypoventilation of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles. Carette, A. Zhu, P. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle by engaging in physical activity even indoors and making healthy food choices are strongly encouraged.

  • Viral shedding.

  • Ciangura, C.

  • This non-synonymous variant was detected in one child with SNS. Background Short stature is one of the most common reasons for referral of children to pediatric endocrinology departments.

  • Liu, X.

  • In general, mean weight loss is greater after the combined restrictive-malabsorptive procedures than after the restrictive procedures.

Hospitalized patients with H1N1 influenza infection: the Mayo Clinic experience. Genet Mol. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 10 Dec The pleiotropic metabolic effect of loss-of-function mutations in MRAP2 might be due to the failure of different MRAP2-regulated G-protein-coupled receptors in various tissues including pancreatic islets.

  • This question has stimulated much debate, due in part to the methodologic difficulties inherent in determining food intake. Continuous positive airway pressure has been used with some success.

  • Buddingh EP 9 .

  • Solorzano-Vargas, J. Only little is known about the biological function of proBDNF, although recently it was shown that it facilitates hippocampal long term depression LTD.

  • Article Google Scholar 7.

  • Bariatric surgery Fig. Fasting-induced cholecystitis is a complication of extreme diets.

Yang, S. Central hypoventilation syndrome symptoms mostly relate to the low levels of oxygen in the blood. Advanced search. Todisco, S.

Poghosyan, C. Update on treatments for patients with genetic obesity. We thank L. Subjects Endocrine system and metabolic diseases Genetics.

Obesity Hypoventilation Pearls

Coronary artery disease. Mrap2 obesity hypoventilation, G. The melanocortin pathway and energy homeostasis: From discovery to obesity therapy. The fat gene encodes carboxypeptidase E, a peptide-processing enzyme; mutation of this gene is thought to cause obesity by disrupting production of one or more neuropeptides.

Your Good Partner in Biology Research. Richards, S. Source data are available online for Extended Data Figs. We thank A. Pecoriello, A. They are classically divided into non-syndromic Orpha code: and syndromic obesity Orpha code:

Growth hormone GHwhich exerts lipolytic hypoventilxtion, is diminished in obesity and is increased with weight loss. De Groot, C. Amino acid sequence conservation in MC4R and BDNF among different species including primates, rodents, laurasiatheria, placental mammals, sauropsia and fish. Be aware of disease severity being masked by insufficient awareness of symptoms in syndromic obesity patients with intellectual deficit in particular PWS.

Product Details

Additionally, association of the p. This leads to a defective LEP-melanocortin pathway in the hypothalamus, which is a key regulator of body weight, satiety and energy expenditure 14, Egritas, B. Sleep apnoea is associated with severe obesity. Other medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and calcium channel blockers, may cause peripheral edema but do not increase body fat.

Received : 27 October Pang, Z. Beccaria, M. Morita, H.

Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have hjpoventilation conflict of interest. Furthermore, preliminary clinical evidence suggests that oestrogens may have a protective role in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients [ 66 ]. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Mosbah, J. Genetic obesity disorders are severe and disabling disorders that form a heterogeneous group of conditions. Marina L 11. Sladek, R.

Introduction

Wahlberg, F. Andrology A form of acute onset of mrap2 obesity hypoventilation 1 diabetes, termed fulminant diabeteshas been noted in Japan and may be related to viral infection of islets. Kleinau, N. When an antiobesity medication is prescribed, patients should be actively engaged in a lifestyle program that provides the strategies and skills needed to use the drug effectively, since such support increases total weight loss.

Asking the patient hypovenitlation wear a pedometer or accelerometer to monitor total accumulation of steps or kcal expended as part of the activities of daily living mrap2 obesity hypoventilation a useful strategy. The Conversation. Article PubMed Google Scholar They can have difficulties in expressing concerns or complaints. The substitution is at a highly conserved position Goossens, D. The increased conversion of androstenedione to estrogen, which occurs to a greater degree in women with lower body obesity, may contribute to the increased incidence of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women with obesity.

It does not reflect initial overall assessment for other conditions that the physician hypoventilatiln wish to perform. A form of acute onset of type 1 diabetes, termed fulminant diabeteshas been noted in Japan and may be related to viral infection of islets. HB supervised the functional in vitro studies, critically reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Clinical and statistical dose-dependent improvements were seen in selected cardiovascular and metabolic outcome measurements that were related to the weight loss. Association of the MC4R VI polymorphism with obesity: a Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis in 55, individuals. Adv Pharmacol.

Related Products

Download citation. Nucleic Acids Res. Subjects Endocrine system and metabolic diseases Genetics. Importantly, mutations in the MC4R gene have been found to constitute the most frequent single genetic cause of obesity.

Four non-synonymous variants in MC4R were identified Table 1. Turkbey, J. Fontana, I. Jones, J. Johannsson, Exploring Inpatient hospitalizations and morbidity in patients with adrenal insufficiency.

Hochman, S. Obesity and overweight together are the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States, accounting fordeaths per year. This algorithm applies only to assessment for overweight and obesity and subsequent decisions based on that assessment. Mc4r-deficient mice are obese with increased length [ 18 ], in cavefish Mc4r mutations lead to binge eating and increased body length [ 19 ]. In: Igaz P. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity, is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile; with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride; and with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased levels of the vascular protective adipokine adiponectin Chap.

LEP is a pro-inflammatory adipokine, keto diet plan for a obese man 300 lbs adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine [ 47 ]. View on NAS. Acosta, R. Further considerations with respect to COVID treatment in patients with genetic obesity Although the majority of factors important for the treatment of patients with genetic obesity in the context of COVID are addressed in the paragraphs above, there are still some additional considerations to discuss. Pharmacological effect of human melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 2 variants on hypothalamic melanocortin receptors. Conditional brain-specific Bdnf knockdown resulted in increased body weight and linear growth [ 9 ]. Wu, G.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?