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Mice gut microbiota obesity – Genetically Obese Human Gut Microbiota Induces Liver Steatosis in Germ-Free Mice Fed on Normal Diet

Composition of gut microbiota is affected by many factors such as diet, disease state, medications as well as host genetics to name a few.

William Murphy
Friday, May 4, 2018
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  • PLoS One e

  • Diet drives convergence in gut microbiome functions across mammalian phylogeny and within humans. Decrease Acteroides spp.

  • Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain.

  • Molecular Koch's postulates applied to bacterial pathogenicity — a personal recollection 15 years later.

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After calorie restriction, the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were slightly increased, while Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia were slightly decreased. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Microbiol Immunol.

AL, ad libitum; Abx, antibiotic treatment. Markers of lipid mie, inflammation, gut microbiota compostion, and intestinal barrier were determined. Bioinformatics 31, — Thus, the role of the gut microbiome in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis needs to be further studied. Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Helicobacter is a bacterial genus living mostly in the upper gastrointestinal tract which was often considered to be infectious and pathogenic OB and MZ: These authors contributed equally to the paper. Mice livers and small intestines were dissected and washed in PBS. In the FMT experiments, we found that the CR-mediated metabolic improvements were, at least partially, contributed by gut microbiota. The scientists repeated the experiment, but this time fed the mice a diet high in saturated fats and low in fruits and vegetables. Hu FB.

  • Antibiotic treatment significantly decreased the plasma insulin level Fig.

  • Am J PhysiolR—

  • Molecular mechanism of PPARalpha action and its impact on lipid metabolism, inflammation and fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The presence of a dysbiotic microbiome causes subsequent increases in gut permeability to bacteria-derived pathogens, including LPS and ethanol.

  • You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Accepted : 25 June

  • Bioinformatics 27, — Functional validation and the underlying mechanism of these phenotype-associated bacteria should be further investigated.

After checking for size and concentration, the obesty PCR product of each sample was mixed equally. Data visualization and statistical analyses of taxonomy Data visualization, statistical analyses and principal component analysis PCA were performed using R and the graphics package ggplot2 [ 17 ]. Our study also indicates that gut microbiota is required to maintain the morphology of the small intestine. J Nutr 1063—79 Mechanisms by which gut microbiota promote metabolic disturbances are not well understood.

Ghoshal, S. Miyawaki, K. Published online Jun A longer small intestine length and extension of intestinal villi upon microbiota depletion would provide a greater absorptive area, leading to an increase of energy intake.

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Ott, B. Contribution of a sedentary lifestyle and inactivity to the etiology of overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues. Adaptive thermogenesis in humans. The significant discrepancy of body weight between the two groups stayed until the end of the experiment Fig.

  • CD Effects of antibiotic treatment on diversity and richness of fecal microbiota revealed respectively by shannon index C and sobs index D.

  • Microbial ecology: searching for principles. Obesity activates toll-like receptor-mediated proinflammatory signaling cascades in the adipose tissue of mice.

  • Calorie restriction CR extends lifespan and elicits numerous effects beneficial to health and metabolism in various model organisms, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood.

  • Falkow, S. Fecal bacterial loads were examined by cultivation of anaerobic microbes using serial dilutions of resuspended fecal pellets on brain heart infusion BHI agar plates.

  • Am J Gastroenterol. Hepatology 64, 73—

Notably, the antibiotic-treated mice exhibited no significant structural modulation under a calorie-restricted diet Fig. Surana, N. Researchers found that the Elovl6 gene plays a key role in hepatic insulin resistance. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain.

Wang, S. A metagenome-wide association study mice gut microbiota obesity gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Even though, individuals have unique microbiota composition, gut microbiota is mainly members of four phyla FirmicutesBacteroidetesActinobacteria and Proteobacteria [ 19 ]. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. MZ: Literature search and wrote manuscript. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease.

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Moreover, probiotics and prebiotics are among the most dietary strategies established for controlling the composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota. The raw paired-end reads were quality trimmed and filtered using Trimmomatic v0. Skelly, B.

Human Microbiome Project Consortium Food Chem. Taxa are given with bootstrap values for each taxonomic level. Variation in gut microorganisms might play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity.

WHO Media Centre [online] J Med Microbiol. Reprints and Permissions. Armougom, F. Shen, J. A Changes in plasma levels of related hormones shown by heatmap. J Lipid Res.

Evans, J. Lane, M. Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.

Background

Open Forum Infect Dis. On average, 8. Organization WH.

  • Both species diversity and richness indices increased with time in HFDS mice only. Backhed, F.

  • We also analyzed the histological and morphological changes of the mice. Zupancic, M.

  • CR, as an important way of dietary intervention, could reshape the gut microbiota.

  • Again, the genetically modified mice gained significantly more in weight and had greater body and liver fat than the normal mice. Love, M.

Nutr Res Rev. Impacts of CR and gut microbiota depletion on blood parameters. PLoS Biol. Background Obesity microbiota obesity its associated disorders have reached an alarming stage worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein plasma levels and liver TNF-alpha gene expression in obese patients: evidence for the potential role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

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Claus, S. Gut — Mice gut microbiota obesity, gut microbiota is associated with inflammation via LPS, which leads to activation of immune cells B cells or dendritic cells and cytokine production Torres-Fuentes et al. On the 2 nd week, over biological functions mainly related with small molecule biochemistry, lipid metabolism and molecular transport were significantly enriched Supplementary Table S3therein, 24 of which showed a significantly activated or suppressed state between PreM and PostM groups Figure 4. Google Scholar.

Zuo, F. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. The results were published in Science on September 6, Interestingly, AB mice exhibited hyperphagia characterized by a significant increase in food intake Fig. Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour.

CONCLUSION

Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. Additionally, several bacterial strains can modify gut-hormone secretion Balakumar et al. Of note, the team determined that important genes in the perixisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR metabolic pathway were significantly suppressed in the deficient mice. Pachikian, B. Search SpringerLink Search.

  • Table S4.

  • Body weight and metabolic alterations upon CR and gut microbiota depletion. MZ: Literature search and wrote manuscript.

  • Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. Sequences for mice living in the SPF environment sorted into taxa, 68 of which were present in more than 0.

  • Balamurugan, R.

Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome. Tchernof, A. CAS Google Scholar. Gronlund, M. Fact sheet no. Article Google Scholar. Donnelly, P.

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Analysis of the gut microbiota in the old order Amish and its relation microbiot the metabolic syndrome. AL, ad libitum; Abx, antibiotic treatment. Studying their effect through various genomic and proteomic tools [ 29 ]. Gut microbiota was also shown to play a role in the regulation of bile acids and cholesterol metabolism in both humans and animals [ ]. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity. Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. We also analyzed the histological and morphological changes of the mice. Lancet Infect Dis. Diabetes Care 28— Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice. Microbiol Immunol.

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Figure 3. Changes in life style that involves increased food consumption and reduced exercise in addition to gut microbiota contribute more to metabolic diseases. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle: modifiable risk factors for prevention of type 2 diabetes. McPherson K.

The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. In addition, CR obesity the composition of gut microbiota with significant increases in major probiotic genera such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteriumtogether with the decrease of Helicobacter. As decreased energy expenditure was commonly associated with weight gain and obesity 2930our data suggested that the observed abrogation of CR-mediated body weight loss by microbiota deletion might be caused by a decrease in metabolic rate upon antibiotics administration. Figure 5.

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Milani, C. Schroeder BO, Backhed F Signals from the gut onesity to distant organs in physiology and disease. Supplement Image. Postgrad Med. J Clin Invest — In addition, we compared the gut microbial profiles of obese mice receiving supplementation of feces from lean mice through the fecal-oral route to profiles of control and obese mice over periods of 12 and 28 weeks. In addition to lowering metabolic rate to compensate for calorie deficiency upon CR, adapting energy loss through fecal calories was also observed in mouse studies

  • The alpha diversity of each sample was calculated based on the number of observed OTUs and the Shannon index. Another abundant OTU in PreM group belongs to Bilophilaan opportunistic pathogen that has been correlated with many human inflammatory diseases Baron et al.

  • Recent studies witnessed significant dynamic changes of mice and human gut microbiota as response to calorie-restricted diet 2627although the overall bacterial phylogenetic alteration was not substantially affected by CR in humans

  • Mucosal Immunol.

  • Progress and challenges in genome-wide association studies in humans. Establishment and development of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria microbiota in breast-milk and the infant gut.

  • Amar, J. Allergy 37—

The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance. Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced but and america gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms. Most notably, the communities from obese twins have less diverse bacterial species. Acetate and propionate are mostly produced by Bacteroidetes phylum, while butyrate is produced by the Firmicutes phylum.

Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. None mice gut microbiota obesity the authors have been obesty to write this article by a pharmaceutical company or other agency. Increase Bacteroidales in large intestine [ ]. Our study reveals that the microbiota-depleted and calorie-restricted mice had the lowest metabolic rate among all the experimental groups Fig.

Introduction

Montague, C. Dietary intake appears to be a major regulator of the structure and function of gut microbiota. Issue Date : January Correspondence to Fang Chen. LPS triggers an immune response along with inflammation and immune-cell infiltration.

These are also the most abundant phyla in the human gut microbiome. View author publications. Petta, S. While some studies describe an increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, other studies show none or even opposite trends [ 9 ].

Gastroenterology— Related actions of probiotics and antibiotics on gut microbiota and weight modification. Yang, X. Evans, A. The influence of the microbiota on type-1 diabetes: on the threshold of a leap forward in our understanding. Cell Metab.

In the trans-cellular pathway, LPS is actively transported into the cell in proportion to the fat content mice gut microbiota obesity the chime, followed by transfer to other lipoproteins by translocases. Erysipelotrichaceae abundance has also been correlated with host cholesterol metabolites [ 28 ]. Abundances of three taxa Peptococcaceae, Thermoanaerobacteraceae and Peptostreptococcaceae appeared to increase significantly with fecal transplants from lean mice to HFD-induced obese mice Table 1. To compare experimental groups at each time point, Mann-Whitney U-tests were performed. Targeting the microbiota to address diet-induced obesity: a time dependent challenge. Obesity Surgery

Background

Donnelly, P. Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity: new insights. Armougom, F. Conserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity.

  • Taken together, the results indicate that before the pathology of steatosis was diagnosed, the pre-intervention gut microbiota induced a foregoing pro-steatotic transcriptional pattern in the liver of gnotobiotic mice.

  • Murphy, E. In this study, we used an antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted AIMD mouse model combined with fecal microbiota transplantation FMT to investigate whether or not gut microbiota is causally involved in metabolic improvement associated with calorie restriction.

  • Especially, emerging studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota can alter the absorption, metabolism and storage of calories 232425although the actual mechanisms are difficult to elucidate. XLSX 60 kb.

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This, git researchers say, provides further evidence that deleting TLR4 specifically from the intestinal epithelium is required for developing metabolic syndrome. Published : 29 August Alang N, Kelly CR. There is compelling evidence supporting modulation of microbiota to treat obesity and related disorders. Pathophysiology of non alcoholic fatty liver disease. Article Google Scholar

Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Abstract Calorie restriction CR extends lifespan and elicits numerous effects beneficial to health and metabolism in various model organisms, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Thank you for visiting nature. Lindberg, A.

Nutr Diabetes. None of the authors have been paid to write this article by a pharmaceutical company or other agency. BMC Microbiology Lederberg, J. Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of Type 1 diabetes.

  • Meanwhile, the concentration of leptin, which is an adipocytokine, was also significantly higher in PreM group on the 4 th week Figure 1E. Bergstrom KS, Xia L.

  • Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment: WHO global report.

  • Genome Res. Genome Biol

  • Skip to main content. Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics.

  • Composition of gut microbiota is affected by many factors such as diet, disease state, medications as well as host genetics to name a few. Amar, J.

Zhang, C. The genetics of human obesity. Email address Sign up. Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5. Nature Methods 7—

Host-derived nitrate boosts growth of E. This work was supported by research grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China and to Y. Sign up for Nature Briefing. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins.

A high-calorie oesity has been associated with an increase in Peptostreptococcaceae [ 35 ], while an anti-obesity effect of vancomycin treatment in mice on HFD decreased the relative abundances of Peptostrepococcaceae and Peptococcaceaeboth members of the phylum Firmicutes [ 36 ]. The previous study had demonstrated that 8-week FMT intervention with donor mice fed ad libitum could attenuate HFD-induced steatohepatitis in mice All of these obesity-induced modifications of the gut microbial profile have been described previously. Beigneux, A.

Microbiota obesity significantly reduced the amount of bacteria in the intestinal tract and prevented all symptoms of metabolic syndrome in the mice that lacked TLR4 in their intestinal epitheliums. Changes in taxa abundance over time were evaluated with linear mixed-effects models using R package lme4 [ 18 ]. Significant reduction of community diversity and richness of gut microbiota by the antibiotics were reflected by analyses of shannon index Fig. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha regulates lipid homeostasis, but is not associated with obesity: studies with congenic mouse lines. Intestinal microbiota contributes to individual susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease.

As shown in Table 1the large intestine contains the highest number of bacteria containing over 10 11 bacteria per gram of intestinal content. Adult microbiota obesity microbiotaa more than 10 times the number of bacterial cells than the cells constituting the human body. The mice had initially been given a chow that was low in saturated fat and high in fruits and vegetables. Involvement of the gut microbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: focus on this neglected partner. Li, M.

Sun, L. Gut microbiota in children with type 1 diabetes differs from that in healthy children: a case-control study. View author publications.

Intriguingly, MicroPET-CT results showed that microbiota depletion leads to increased glucose micce primarily in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue and perigonadal visceral adipose tissue Suarez-Zamorano et al. Gut microbiota orchestrates energy homeostasis during cold. Open Heart problems related to obesity in america Infect Dis. The most abundant phyla found in mice living in the SPF facility were Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria A new Johns Hopkins study of mice with the rodent equivalent of metabolic syndrome has added to evidence that the intestinal microbiome -- a "garden" of bacterial, viral and fungal genes -- plays a substantial role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance in mammals, including humans. Each animal was weighed weekly to an accuracy of 0. Also, transfer of microbiota from obese-prone, but not obese-resistant rats, to germ-free mice replicates the obese-prone phenotype [ 10 ].

  • Milani, C.

  • Hu FB.

  • Download citation. Also, it has been found that many hormones secreted by the gastrointestinal tract itself and brain are indirectly regulated by gut microbiota possibly mediated by short chain fatty acids SCFAs

  • Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients.

  • Living Well. Assessing the fecal microbiota: an optimized ion torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis protocol.

Chemistry, stability and bioavailability of resveratrol. These data indicated that gut microbiota depletion is able to gkt the risk of metabolic dysregulation as the elevations of blood obesity and cholesterol levels are considered as the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome 31 The higher level of the relative concentration of acetate among SCFAs and Bifidobacterium may have contributed to the decrease of the potential pathogenic bacteria in PostM group. By contrast, we observed a progressive, statistically significant increase in the both species diversity and richness in HFDS-fed mice Fig.

Morrison, J. Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice. The majority of these organisms reside in the microbkota intestine. Surgery: Altered gut microbiota trigger weight loss. Influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota. Pathobionts of the gastrointestinal microbiota and inflammatory disease. The number of CFU was counted and only anaerobic culturable fecal microbes could be quantified by this method.

Introduction

Natl Acad. These findings reveal transmissible, rapid, and modifiable effects of diet-by-microbiota interactions. Google Scholar Chow, J. Pediatrics—

Obese-type gut microbiota induce neurobehavioral changes in the absence of obesity. Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota. Conterno, L. J Clin Gastroenterol. Email address Sign up.

We found that gut microbiota microbota also required for regulating the secretion of metabolism-modulating hormones. Surana, N. S5as antibiotics extensively depleted resident gut microbiota. Changes seen in gut bacteria content and distribution with obesity: causation or association? Mouse study adds to evidence linking gut bacteria and obesity. Lievin, V.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Figure 5. Wheat-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides with prebiotic effect increase satietogenic gut peptides and reduce metabolic endotoxemia in diet-induced obese mice. The role of gut microbiota in human obesity: recent findings and future perspectives.

Lipids Health Dis. Molecular Koch's postulates applied to microbial pathogenicity. The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. Published online Jun

Moreover, the persistent activation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle was speculated to be one of the crucial reasons for the obesity to diet-induced obesity in GF mice Backhed et al. High fat diets induce colonic epithelial cell stress and inflammation that is reversed by IL Notably, similar to leptin, insulin is also an acute appetite suppressant As expected, housing conditions markedly influenced the composition of the microbiota in mice this study and reviewed in [ 39 ] and intestinal barrier integrity in mice fed a HFD [ 40 ]. Obesity in both humans and animals is associated with decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia that can lead to systemic oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation [ 12 ]. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

Abbreviations

We also determined the level of plasma insulin level but no significant difference was found among the three HFD groups Fig. As shown by respective rarefaction curves Fig. Sci Rep. Targeting the microbiota to address diet-induced obesity: a time dependent challenge.

  • Dodt, M.

  • Environmental and genetic factors have also been implicated including changes in the gut microbiota to play a role in the development of metabolic disorders [ 11 — 17 ].

  • Sonnenburg, E.

  • Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Mice gut microbiota obesity than 9, unique genes in human gut bacterial community: estimating gene numbers inside a human body. Figure 3. This review summarizes key discoveries during the past decade that established the role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and diabetes. A review of the literature. Woods, S. Lancet Infect Dis.

Related data concerning FMT as a treatment for obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans are relatively microbiota obesity. Administering antibiotics prevented the differences in gene regulation between the two groups of mice, as did administering drugs to activate the PPAR signaling pathway, further explaining the reasons for which obesity developed. Additionally, calorie restriction can also act on gut microbiota itself through adjustments of the diversity and the proportion of beneficial and harmful bacteria. Taken together, the results indicate that before the pathology of steatosis was diagnosed, the pre-intervention gut microbiota induced a foregoing pro-steatotic transcriptional pattern in the liver of gnotobiotic mice. Hua, J. Two functions related to lipid transport, i.

FMT is a way to normalize the composition and functionality hut gut microbiota by transferring an infusion of a fecal suspension from a healthy individual to obesity gastrointestinal tract of another person. Blood, liver, and colon tissues were harvested following refined protocols. Prenatal stress-induced alterations in major physiological systems correlate with gut microbiota composition in adulthood. New York: Springer; Akkermansia muciniphila produces a variety of fermentation products that may serve as energy sources for other bacteria and the host [ 29 ].

Infectious history. S8Bwhich was largely consistent with our observation with the CR mice Fig. Pharmacol Res. CR, as an important way of dietary intervention, could reshape the gut microbiota. Gut microbes and obesity in adolescents.

  • Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight. Structural modulation of gut microbiota in life-long calorie-restricted mice.

  • A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota.

  • Proc Nutr Soc 64— After being fed on normal chow diet for 4 weeks, PreM group developed liver macrovesicular steatosis accompanied with higher concentrations of hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol, while PostM group exhibited normal hepatic physiology.

  • The authors thank Bing Zhou and Runze Shang for technical assistance and manuscript editing.

Rothe M, Blaut M. Effect of mother's weight on infant's microbiota acquisition, composition, and activity during early infancy: a prospective follow-up study initiated in early pregnancy. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Atkinson MA, Chervonsky A.

Comments By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms obesity Community Guidelines. Higher rates of T1D incidence have been reported in recent years that are not explained by genetic factors and have been attributed to changes in our lifestyle such diet, hygiene, and antibiotic usage that can directly affect microbiota [ ]. Published : 05 August These data indicated that gut microbiota depletion is able to increase the risk of metabolic dysregulation as the elevations of blood glucose and cholesterol levels are considered as the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome 31 ,

Lagouge M, et al. Gastrointestinal hormones and the dialogue between gut and brain. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Resveratrol RSV is a natural polyphenol with microbiota obesity anti-obesity obeesity however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. Fecal bacterial loads were examined by cultivation of anaerobic microbes using serial dilutions of resuspended fecal pellets on brain heart infusion BHI agar plates. S8Bwhich was largely consistent with our observation with the CR mice Fig. Experiments were repeated 3 times.

Ann Intern Med — It is tempting to speculate that the effects of microbiota on metabolism-related organs, whether capable of modulating inflammatory responses or regulating active molecular signals, are fundamental elements in the process of obesity, which would provide an environment factor as the cause of the complex pathology of obesity. Our study also indicates that gut microbiota is required to maintain the morphology of the small intestine. A phylogenetic tree was built using FastTree v2. Download references. Absence of intestinal microbiota does not protect mice from diet-induced obesity. J Funct Foods.

Microbial ecology: searching for principles. Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic mice gut microbiota obesity. Tackling the microbiome. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. The mice had initially been given a chow that was low in saturated fat and high in fruits and vegetables. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.

The mice had initially been given a chow that was low in saturated fat and high in fruits and vegetables. Arch Argent Pediatr. Surgery: Altered gut microbiota trigger weight loss.

We therefore propose that calorie restriction may bring about the beneficial america to the body by reshaping the structure of gut microbiota. Such antibiotic-mediated changes in the morphology of small intestine may partly explain our observation that CR-induced body weight loss is abrogated by depletion of gut microbiota. After the surgery, patients observe dramatic metabolic improvement that cannot be explained by the caloric restriction and the weight loss alone. VAT will be added later in the checkout. Abstract The gut microbiota has been linked with chronic diseases such as obesity in humans. USA— You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

USA A Schematic design of the experiment. Cani, P. Increased total body and hut mass, as well as obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes, were transmissible with uncultured fecal communities and with their corresponding fecal bacterial culture collections. Nicholson, J. After the surgery, patients observe dramatic metabolic improvement that cannot be explained by the caloric restriction and the weight loss alone.

Also, a structural rearrangement of gut microbiota occurred after obesity restriction as illustrated by a supervised partial guut squares discriminant analysis PLS-DA and hierarchical clustering Figs 5D and S4. Adult humans have more than 10 times the number of bacterial cells than the cells constituting the human body. Gut microbiota, diet, and heart disease. Hursting, S.

This article does not contain any studies with human or mkce subjects performed by any of the authors. Functional validation and the underlying mechanism of these phenotype-associated bacteria should be further investigated. Notably, the antibiotic-treated mice exhibited no significant structural modulation under a calorie-restricted diet Fig. While some studies describe an increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, other studies show none or even opposite trends [ 9 ]. Camps, S. Gut microbiota: a key player in health and disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol.

Mice populated with microbes from a lean obesjty stayed slim, whereas those given microbes from an obese twin quickly gained weight. As shown in Table 1the large intestine contains the highest number of bacteria containing over 10 11 bacteria per gram of intestinal content. Pediatrics— Our study reveals that the microbiota-depleted and calorie-restricted mice had the lowest metabolic rate among all the experimental groups Fig. Turnbaugh, P. In addition, gut microbiota may serve as a target in the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders.

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