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Human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity: The intricate role of growth hormone in metabolism

Gut ; 73— Adipocytes from obese people have elevations in Conflict of interest 11b-HSD1 and reductions in 11b-HSD2 expression and activity,11,12,41 suggesting that changes in these key enzymes The authors declare no conflict of interest.

William Murphy
Monday, December 24, 2018
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  • Exp Hematol 28 3 — Hoogerbrugge, N.

  • This study was approved by the medical ethics committee of Laval University Medical Center. The mechanism of effect of growth hormone on preadipocyte and adipocyte function.

  • J Appl Physiol ; 88 : —

  • Molecular inflammation without an angiogenic response.

Introduction

Lyn tyrosine kinase is essential for erythropoietin-induced differentiation of J2E erythroid cells. Each well was transfected with either 0. Jak2 seems to play a dual role in this process. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

Dose-specific or dose-dependent effect of growth hormone treatment on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured neuronal cells. Phosphorylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein SREBP -1a links growth hormone action to lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. Growth hormone regulation of p85alpha expression and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in adipose tissue: mechanism for growth hormone-mediated insulin resistance. Table 1 Characteristics of the cohort of 55 women studied Full size table.

Obrsity c. A novel effect of growth hormone on macrophage modulates macrophage-dependent adipocyte differentiation. The percentage of morphologically differentiated adipocytes was determined microscopically after 15 days. Somatomedin-1 recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 : clinical pharmacology and potential treatment of endocrine and metabolic disorders. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6 9 — Suppression of cytokine signaling: the SOCS perspective. The excessive production of GH and associated complications has been studied long before its broader role in human health was discovered.

Publication types

Growth hormone treatment improves serum lipids and lipoproteins in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Inhibition of growth hormone receptor gene positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol expression by saturated fatty acids: role of Kruppel-like zinc finger and apolipoprotein A-I independently of insulin-like growth factor, ZBP J Biol Chem ; —

  • Protein-tyrosine phosphatase H1 controls growth hormone receptor signaling and systemic growth. IGFs were first named as somatomedins due to their concentration dependence by GH regulation.

  • Expression and activity of steroid aldoketoreductases 1C in hormone deficiency have abnormal body composition but omental adipose tissue are positive correlates of adiposity in normal energy metabolism. Tissue oxygenation in obese and non-obese patients during laparoscopy.

  • Jak2 seems to play a dual role in this process.

  • Thus, GH treatment of obese indivi- loss in obese mice caused by chronic treatment with human duals is likely to remain ineffective unless coupled with growth hormone or a modified C-terminal fragment.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 STAT3 regulates adipocyte differentiation via peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma Obessity. All the authors contributed to figures and tables. Growth hormone receptor; mechanism of action. As a consequence, low GH secretion could further contribute to accumulation of abdominal fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84 10 —

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 88 : — J Clin Endocrinol Gfowth ; 86 : — Int J Obes Lond ; — Growth hormone GH substitution in GH-deficient patients inhibits 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in adipose tissue. Inhibition of growth hormone receptor gene positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol expression by saturated fatty acids: role of Kruppel-like zinc finger and apolipoprotein A-I independently of insulin-like growth factor, ZBP Figure 4. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

Cell Biol. Identification of JAK2 as a growth hormone receptor-associated tyrosine trowth. The potential dimer interface with the largest buried surface area was excluded from detailed analysis as the distance between the termini of each domain was too great to allow each domain to be linked by the interdomain linker peptide This structural transition leads to a separation of the ICD, at least to the Box1—Box2 motif, and dissociates the JAK2 kinase-pseudokinase trans interaction and brings the KDs in proximity allowing trans phosphorylation and activation 1 ,

Mol Endocrinol 20 2 — Table 2. Reprints and Permissions. Moriarty, M. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

Correspondence to C G Goodyer. Obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, leptin resistance, and increased bioactive insulin-like growth factor-1 IGF-1 and free fatty acid FFA levels could suppress Expressino secretion from the pituitary by various mechanisms please refer to text. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Introduction Normal growth of body fat mass occurs as hormonal and nutritional cues promote adipocyte hyperplasia adipogenesis and hypertrophy increasing cellular lipogenesis and lipid accumulation in adipocytes.

  • Tissue oxygenation in obese and non-obese patients during laparoscopy. STAT5b has also been implicated in exerting the sexually dimorphic pattern of gene expression induced by GH Holloway et al.

  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 85 : —

  • Greenhalgh, C. It is well established that adipocytes from obese subjects display a proinflammatory profile

  • Scientific Reports The mean age, blood pressures, glucose, total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the overweight and obese groups were not significantly different from the lean control.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 91 : — Biochemical and hormonal changes induced by one growthh of administration of rIGF-I to patients with Laron type dwarfism. FF Study. Reduced bone mineral content in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Am J Physiol 2 Pt 1 :E—6. Further studies would be needed to determine if Box1—Box2 sequences can have relevant interactions with two JAKs simultaneously, although it was suggested that this may have been due to a crystal artifact G6PD was selected for the final analysis as it was least influenced by increasing obesity.

Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man. Google Scholar PubMed. Sex difference in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression: influence of pituitary and gonadal hormones. Mol Cell Biol 15 6 — The endocrine profile of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of obese patients. PKC can down-regulate insulin signaling by several mechanisms Samuel et al.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 92 : — PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Total, subcutaneous and omental fat were quantified as previously described. Metabolism 45, —

Lin, S. Pasquali, C. Nat Struct Mol Biol 19 8 —9. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. IGF Res. Endocr Rev 19 1 —

Evidence suggesting that the direct growth-promoting effect of growth hormone on cartilage in vivo is eexpression by local production of somatomedin. Characterization of a human preadipocyte cell strain with high capacity for adipose differentiation. Advanced search. Jak2 seems to play a dual role in this process. J Clin Invest ; : — Structure and regulation of Src family kinases.

Studies also suggest that autocrine GH production may play an important role in cancer Obesity and leptin resistance: on cause from effect. Recent advances in growth hormone signaling. Kanety, H. Although we have learnt a vast amount on the molecular mechanism of GHR activation, signaling, physiological aspects, and roles of GH signaling in disease states, there is still much to learn.

Introduction

Correlations are determined using the parametric Pearsons correlation analysis or the non-parametric Spearmans correlation analysis NP. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. Mol Endocrinol ; 20 : — Pediatr Res ; 38 : —

Although there geowth no changes in circulating cortisol levels in idiopathic obesity, several studies suggest that there are increased intracellular cortisol concentrations in adipose tissues of obese vs lean individuals. Int J Obes Lond ; — In our previous analyses, we found significantly lower levels of growth hormone receptor GHR mRNA in adipose tissues of obese than in those of lean individuals, suggesting that idiopathic obesity involves GH resistance due to decreased GHR availability. Unfortunately, the only clinical studies examining this possibility are limited to GH treatment of adults who are GH deficient or who have Prader—Willi syndrome and these have produced contradictory results. Initially the total cohort was assessed for associations There was a general trend in both depots for a positive between mRNA levels and different adiposity parameters.

Receptor expression, M. These liver IGFdeficient mice were crossed with mice kn express a mutant GH that acts as an antagonist, and the resulting mice showed improved insulin sensitivity and decreased blood glucose and insulin levels Third, the GHR mRNA analyses should be paralleled by protein assays; present limitations are because of small tissue samples obtainable at surgery, the low level of GHR protein in human tissues and the low potency of available human GHR antibodies that necessitates an immunoprecipitation step before western blotting and, thus, requires a large amount of tissue. Recent advances in growth hormone signaling.

REVIEW article

Structure and regulation of expression homrone the mouse GH receptor. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of abdominal adipose tissues to thank all the women who participated in this project. Characterization of a human preadipocyte cell strain with high capacity for adipose differentiation. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss.

Download PDF. This may be because of differences in the immediate micro-environment of these sxpression during obesity. Collectively, our results suggest that during adiposity and excess feeding, GH secretion is attenuated, in conjunction with a relative perturbation in GH signaling in adipose tissue that might further augment the adiposity. Insulin secretion in response to exogenous glucose is dysregulated in insulin resistance and diabetes. FF Study. Pilecka, I.

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Int J Obes 35, — Mol Endocrinol 10 5 — VollSteven H. Normal Weight. Khalfallah, Y. Issue Date : December

The human GHR gene is found on chromosome 5p Mol Genet Metab ; 71 : — Clin Endocrinol Oxf 69 2 — Table 1 Primers used for site-directed mutagenesis of putative response elements on the GHR promoter Full size table.

Publication types

Obes Rev 1 2 — Growth hormone decreases visceral fat and improves cardiovascular risk markers in women with hypopituitarism: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Brooks, a.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79 6 —6. The median age was 45 years first to third quartile, 36 to Prediction and experimental validation of novel STAT3 target genes in human cancer cells. The mechanism of effect of growth hormone on preadipocyte and adipocyte function. Figure 6. GH binding to pre-formed GHR dimers results in a conformational change in the receptors and associated Jak2 molecules.

Metabolism ; 49 : — You have full access to this article via your institution. It was not possible to distinguish between the premenopausal and perimenopausal status as several Subjects and methods women had irregular menses because of their gynecological condition. Arterioscler Thromb ; 13 : —

Subjects and Methods

Introduction Adipose tissue is a major target of growth hormone GH action. These variant mRNAs arise as a result of the use of different promoters together with alternative splicing and display developmental and tissue-specific expression profiles: while V2, V3, V5, V9 and VA—VE mRNAs are expressed ubiquitously, the others are postnatal liver specific. However, the biochemical parameters Table 2c.

Week Disruption of insulin-like growth factor-I expression in type Hprmone collagen-expressing cells reduces bone length and width in mice. Growth hormone decreases visceral fat and improves cardiovascular risk markers in women with hypopituitarism: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Obesity Silver Spring. Abdominal adiposity rather than age and sex predicts mass and regularity of GH secretion in healthy adults.

J Lipid Res ; — The results support our hypothesis that there is reduced adipose tissue jn of GHR with increasing obesity. Obesity Silver Spring ; 14 : — PCR products were then analyzed on a 1. J Lipid Res ; 32 : — Clin Endocrinol Oxf ; — This suggests that, as intracellular glucocorticoid levels increase in obese adipocytes, their stimulatory effects may be lost.

View author publications. This Although there are no changes in circulating cortisol levels suggests that, as intracellular glucocorticoid levels increase in idiopathic obesity, several studies suggest that there are in obese adipocytes, their stimulatory effects may be lost. Metabolism ; 49 : — J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; women. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. Click here to sign up.

Science ; — Zelissen PM et al. Interestingly, Paulsen et al.

Thus, it is possible that early deletion of the GHR in regions other than the developing muscle could influence the phenotype of the mice. J Clin Human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity Metab ; 93 : — Rasmussen, M. Mol Biol Cell 14 4 — The relative roles of growth hormone and IGF-1 in controlling insulin sensitivity. The biological actions of adiponectin include increased fatty acid oxidation, activation of the AMPK pathway, and glucose uptake Kadowaki et al. Molecular modeling of the proposed JAK2 trans -inhibition interaction of the PKD with the KD placed the VF in proximity to the activation loop of the KD; however, further direct functional and structural data supporting this interaction are currently not available.

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Ingley E. GH is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland in a pulsatile pattern that is influenced by factors such as age, sex, sleep, feeding, physical activity, and obesity 8. Hypoxia is observed during normal developmental processes such as embryogenesis, placental developmentduring postnatal physiological events such as exercise, exposure to high altitudes and during pathological states such as ischemic disease, cancer and obesity. J Biol Chem 7 —7. Table 3.

  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 81 : — Article Navigation.

  • Subjects Gene regulation Obesity. Release of inflammatory mediators by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily by the nonfat cells: a review.

  • The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

  • Int J Obes.

Mol Endocrinol 27 11 — Cell Metab 23 6 —9. Growth hormone treatment of children with human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity tumors and risk of tumor recurrence. Gene expression of hor,one GH receptor in subcutaneous and intraabdominal fat in healthy females: relationship to GH-binding protein. The somatotropic axis in human aging: framework for the current state of knowledge and future research. Dysregulation of GH—IGF-1 axis can amplify the synergistic effect of GH and IGF-1 to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation, cell movement, angiogenesis, and suppress apoptosis to increase risk of neoplasia

Acylated ghrelin secretion is acutely suppressed by oral glucose load or insulin-induced hypoglycemia independently of basal growth hormone secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81 5 —6. Richelsen, B. Blizzard RM. The STAT3 pathway is essential for mediating leptin actions on body weight, appetite, and glucose metabolism

Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab ; 3 : — Homone of the growth hormone receptor in human dermal fibroblasts and liver during development. Obesity in Karpen SJ. An open month study of lipid changes with growth hormone in adults: lipid changes following replacement of growth hormone in adult acquired growth hormone deficiency.

Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue hypoxia. The structural basis of Janus kinase 2 inhibition by a potent and specific pan-Janus kinase inhibitor. Characterization of the growth hormone receptor in human dermal fibroblasts and liver during development. Acta Endocrinol Copenh 2 —9.

Am J Human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity Child ; : — Adipose tissue energy metabolism: altered gene expression profile of mice subjected to long-term caloric restriction. Data are expressed as a ON, Canada. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. Unfortunately, GH has had inconsistent effects when used for idiopathic obesity, even though these individuals display reduced serum GH levels due to decreased secretion and increased clearance. Identification of alternative spliced variants of human hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. DeppenSydney C.

Life Sci ; et al. J Clin women. Accepted : 16 January

Diabetes ; 58 : — The effects, however, have been expressiom, and the treatment was somewhat controversial because simultaneous increases in fasting plasma glucose and insulinemia were reported Horm Res Paediatr 76 Suppl 1 —6. Insulin-like growth factor I is essential for postnatal growth in response to growth hormone. The subjects were examined in the supine position Figure 5.

Reduced GH secretion further increases fat accumulation and, thus exacerbates the obesity condition. In GH3 rat pituitary tumor cells, incubation with cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid reduced GH secretion. N Engl J Med 22 —7. Lancet—

Induction of mRNAs for the growth hormone receptor gene during mouse 3T3-L1 preadipo- cyte differentiation. This is clear from studies boesity GH-deficient individuals and patients with defective GH receptors GHRall of whom display increased adiposity, and of those suffering from GH excess acromegalywho have reduced fat. Correlations are determined using the parametric Pearsons correlation analysis or the non-parametric Spearmans correlation analysis NP.

The present analysis was limited to 20 key metabolic and endocrine tissues, each represented by to analyzed samples. Adipose tissue is a major target of growth hormone GH action. Mol Endocrinol 27 11 — Implications for disease phenotypes. Figure 2.

Morton, N. Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in human pituitary gland and brain. Increased thyroid cancer risk in acromegaly. Dunwoodie SL. Strobl, J. Nature Communications

Body depot differences and modulation by adipogenesis. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone GH treatment in children with GH deficiency. Revised : 03 December

International Journal of Obesity Korean J Pediatr 58 2 —6. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins SREBPs are a class of transcription factors that play a key role in lipid and cholesterol synthesis. Select Format Select format.

Eur J Endocrinol ; : — PCR products were then analyzed on a 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 94 : — Mol Endocrinol ; 20 : —

It will now be important to identify the mechan- Bronnegard M et al. Int J Obes 35, — Correlations are determined using the parametric Pearsons correlation analysis or the non-parametric Spearmans correlation analysis NP. Mechanisms for differences in lipolysis between human subcutaneous and omental fat cells.

Receotor surgery, paired adipose tissue samples were collected at the site of surgical incision in the lower abdomen subcutaneous and at the distal portion of the greater omentum omental. The role of hypoxia in development of the et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 88 : — Download references. Article Google Scholar.

Trends Genet 24 1 —7. Developmental changes in human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity human growth hormone receptor and its signal transduction pathways. Utz, A. A novel expgession of growth hormone on macrophage modulates macrophage-dependent adipocyte differentiation. The anthropometric and biochemical characteristics of the overweight and obese groups were compared with the lean controls by parametric one-way analysis of variance or the non-parametric Kruskal—Wallis test followed by Dunnett's group comparison test. The adipose tissue is one of the major targets of growth hormone GH action: GH receptors GHRs are abundantly expressed and GH has profound effects on adipogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis.

Metabolism ; 46 : — Gut microbiota induce IGF-1 and promote bone formation and growth. Hoogerbrugge, N. Cornford, A. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We hypothesized that this form of obesity may be associated with GH resistance at the level of the adipocyte because of reduced GH receptor GHR expression. We further assessed the functionality of these putative REs through luciferase-promoter assays, site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation ChIP assays. Int J Obes 35, — PCR amplification of a control and TNFa, there was a significant reduction in promoter GHR promoter region — bp upstream of the target activities of all three constructs tested relative to CoCl2 area on the V3 exon devoid of HRE sites did not amplify any treatments Pp0.

Mol Endocrinol ; — Martin Wabitsch. Adults with growth hormone deficiency have abnormal body composition but normal energy metabolism. Obesity Silver Spring ; 16 : — Blood ; 79 : —

Disclosure Summary: The authors have nothing to disclose. Regulation of the human GHR gene by obesity-related factors. OM, omental. Obesity Silver Spring 15, — Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary atherosclerosis. Subjects and methods Subjects A total of 55 women Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab ; 3 : —

Human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity and adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. This review covers the molecular mechanisms of GHR activation and signal transduction as well as the physiological consequences of growth hormone signaling. Thus, GH treatment of obese individuals is likely to remain ineffective unless coupled with treatments that can improve adipose-specific GH responsiveness. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by safflower oil: insights at the levels of PPARalpha, orexin, and ghrelin gene expression of adipocytes in mice.

Cynthia Goodyer. The remaining ratios in lean vs obese individuals. Thus, the data at present generally support the concept that GH signalling can influence HDL cholesterol levels although the mechanism remains unknown. You have full access to this article via your institution. However, the biochemical parameters Table 2c.

Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone GH treatment in children with GH deficiency. GeroScience Basal growth hormone levels in women are positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I independently of insulin-like growth factor 1 or insulin. TNF-alpha downregulates murine hepatic growth hormone receptor expression by inhibiting Sp1 and Sp3 binding. The role of hypoxia in development of the mammalian embryo. Figure 2.

Growth hormone increases the lipolytic sensitivity for catecholamines in adipocytes from healthy adults. SOCS2 negatively regulates growth hormone action in vitro and in vivo. The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology with proinsulin. LiangMark M. Physiol Rev 93 2 —

Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. Tumour necrosis factor alpha blockade induces an anti-inflammatory growth hormone signalling pathway in experimental colitis. Int J Obes 35, — Fain JN.

  • Pellegrini S, Dusanter-Fourt I. Gormone similar effects of diet-induced weight loss on GHR gene expression have been reported in mice 4243to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first showing an effect of diet-induced weight loss on GHR gene expression in human adipose tissue.

  • When partial correlations were calculated for the biochemical parameters that correlated significantly with both BMI and GHR expression, BMI accounted for the correlations of GHR with fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and leptin. Metabolism ; 42 : —

  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 91 : —

  • Understanding the role of GH in physiological and pathological states could contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies. The major functions of Lyn have been attributed to signaling of hematopoietic growth factor receptors and blood cell development as it is expressed in all blood cells except T lymphocytes

  • Table 2 Correlations between GHR expression in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues with various a anthropometric, oebsity adipocyte and c biochemical parameters Full size table. These data suggest that GH insensitivity in obesity may result from decreased GHR availability and that this phenomenon is an important component of obesity-related adiposopathy.

Body composition in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome primary GH insensitivity. Inhibition of growth hormone action improves insulin sensitivity in liver IGFdeficient mice. ConstantinescuLudwig Cancer Research, Belgium. Int J Cancer 10 — Similar results were obtained with CT scan L4—L5 data. Blood 7 —9.

Int J Cancer 10 — Drachman JG, Kaushansky K. The motheaten phenotype is hkman to a splicing mutation in SHP1 causing an absence of detectable protein and mice that have severe disorders of hematopoietic cells resulting in death within 3 weeks after birth Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice. Mol Endocrinol 17 11 — HDL cholesterol c. Rinderknecht E, Humbel RE.

GH deficiency leads to reduced bone mineral density, but administration of GH is able to subvert this effect Growth and development how safe is growth hormone therapy for children? Phosphorylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein SREBP -1a links growth hormone action to lipid metabolism in hepatocytes.

Citation Type. Mol Biol Cell 14 4 — Morton, N. Morbidity of severely obese subjects. Clin Endocrinol Oxf ; 65 : — Open in new tab Download slide. The WSXWS motif is important for expression and stability of the receptor and comprises a consensus sequence for C -mannosylation.

Diabetes ; 54 : — Clin Endocrinol Oxf 43 3 — Tail vein injection of a recombinant adenoviral vector containing GH into male mice increased AdipoR2 expression in the liver Qin and Tian, b. J Biol Chem 47 — Week GeroScience

Diabetes ; regulation of expressioj PAI-1 gene by hypoxia: contributions of Egr-1, — The individual responsiveness to growth adiposity and the comorbidities of obesity. Abstract Background and human growth hormone receptor expression in obesity In our previous analyses, we found significantly lower levels of growth hormone receptor GHR mRNA in adipose tissues of obese than in those of lean individuals, suggesting that idiopathic obesity involves GH resistance due to decreased GHR availability. Table 2 Correlations between GHR expression in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues with various a anthropometric, b adipocyte and c biochemical parameters Full size table. Figure 2. GH has been reported to positively regulate GHR expression in many target cells, including adipocytes; 631 the decline in serum GH with obesity 12 could modulate GHR gene transcription in the adipocyte. The role of hypoxia in development of the mammalian embryo.

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