Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy – Pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and the gut microbiota of mothers and their infants

Likewise administration of Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage as control for six weeks to obese postmenopausal women had no effect on the metabolic markers [ ]. Rarefaction plot of increasing numbers of unique 16s sequences Uniques, after Pandaseq assembly of paired reads.

William Murphy
Saturday, December 8, 2018
Advertisement
  • Download references.

  • This software clusters sequences around a central seed sequence or centroid forming hierarchical levels based on differences of only a single nucleotide.

  • Manichanh, C. For example, in older pregnant women, the OTUs of F.

MeSH terms

The milking procedure was designed to prevent carry-over and pregnancy milk from one cow's sample to another. Subsequently it was found that oral administration of these bacteria to preweaned dairy heifers did indeed improve weight gain and reduce diarrhea occurrence[ 23 ]. Casein micelles were solubilised and removed from the pelleted material by the addition of EDTA to 30mM, further centrifugation and saline washes. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota LcS. Lactobacilli modulate expression of numerous genes encoding adherence junction proteins like E-cadherin, B-catenin in a T84 cell barrier model [ 65 ].

The gut microbiomic repertoire of pregnant women provides insights into microbial structure specificity, gestational age-associated variation, and host dependence during this critical time. To assess co-occurrence of both species, prevalence of F. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. Weir, T. Homogeneous subgroups in each plot are indicated with the same superscript. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and no financial compensation was provided. Received : 13 June

ALSO READ: Obesity Refers Specifically To Geologic Mountain

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii: from microbiology epidemiologic distribution of obesity diagnostics and prognostics. Haro C. Hong S. Faecalibacterium -related from analysis using the Greengenes database 16s v4 sequences, clustered using swarm2 see Fig 3 were compared to the Genbank Microbial 16s rRNA gene sequences database using megaBlast. This type of kiwifruit has a mild and sweeter taste than green kiwifruit. However, this is not the case. Butyrate stimulates adipose lipolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through histone hyperacetylation-associated beta3 -adrenergic receptor activation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Increased intake of a high carbohydrate and fat diet can lead to dysbiosis and increased triglyceride deposition and pregnancy adipose tissue which is associated with decreased FIAF expression [ 12 ]. Park J. A deeper analysis of Faecalibacterium strains could perhaps be achieved by amplifying and sequencing the genes encoding enzymes for butyrate synthesis [ 77 ] or the anti-inflammatory protein MAM[ 35 ]. In contrast, consumption of gold kiwifruit has been linked to:. Cross-feeding chains have been established between BifidobacteriaF. Therefore milk, as an alternative to faeces, offers the opportunity of discovering new strains with potential probiotic application.

One such example is that Lactobacilli species differ widely in their ability to trigger TLR2 signaling [ faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy ]. However, this is not the case. Effect of functional yogurt NY-YP in improving the trait of metabolic syndrome. Kang J. The role of bifidobacteria in gut barrier function after thermal injury in rats.

1. Introduction

Abstract Background: Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. BMC Biol. The study cohort consisted of pregnant women with a mean age of The fact that there is a positive correlation of the two species indicates that their abundance varies in a similar way in this particular condition.

Table 6. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain GWG impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. National Cooperative Crohn's disease study. Kuczynski, J.

ALSO READ: Obesity Treatment Programs Children

Plates and optical caps were provided by Applied Biosystems Ref. Edgar RC. At the genus level, Bacteroides and Blautia had lower and Faecalibacterium higher abundances in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. The gut microbiota has been associated with wellness and disease 1. Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitziicohabitants in the intestinal mucosa, are considered members of a healthy microbiota and reduction of both species occurs in several intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease.

Batterham R. Sharafedtinov K. Edgar RC. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. In addition, this probiotic strain induced changes in expression of several hepatic genes involved in regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism including increased IRS2, Akt2, AMPK, LPL, and reduced CD36, resulting in reduced insulin resistance, improved glucose tolerance and insulin response. Edge length is for visual presentation only and does not reflect degree of sequence identity. Furthermore, butyrate is a fuel source for the cells in the colon called colonocytes.

Half of subjects with distal UC E2 were characterized by presenting only A. In alcohol-dependent participants, a lower abundance of Faecalibacteriumparticularly F. Obssity further correction to adjust for differences in 16S rRNA gene operons in each species was performed, as no consensus has been achieved to date for F. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Full size table. When analyzing prevalence taking into account clinical data of the patients, no significant differences were observed by activity, medication or intestinal resection neither in CD nor in UC. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women.

Publication types

Buck B. Fqecalibacterium on email. While dairy cow milk is an important food source for many humans and is known to contain many species of bacteria[ 1 — 3 ], until recently its microbial population had not received the degree of detailed attention paid to microbiomes such as in the human gut. Cani P. Additionally, the dietary intervention plus probiotic supplementation produced a significant reduction in waist circumference, and plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids [ ].

Taken together these studies show that although some combination obesihy Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria probiotic strains may be more effective than others in ameliorating and pregnancy metabolic defects, by and large, the effectiveness of probiotics on human obesity and their mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated. Ryder J. Several studies have examined the effects of the widely spread Lactobacillus casei LcS and Lactobacillus paracasei F Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice. The gut microbiota and its potential role in obesity. Food Microbiol.

At the same time, this is a faedalibacterium of faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy study because all of the women were studied at the same stage of pregnancy. Lozupone, C. The influence of endotoxemia on the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance. Effect size analysis We estimated the effect size of each variable host parameter on microbiome variation using the adonis function within the R vegan package.

They act to decrease intestinal motility, gastric emptying and regulate glucose homeostasis and energy utilization [ 23 ]. The more recent development of high throughput sequencing of microbial 16s rRNA gene variable regions obwsity enables a detailed description of milk microbiomes such as that found in human [ 78 ] and dairy milk[ 159 ]. This analysis involved 43 nucleotide sequences. Furthermore, the commensal bacteria provide metabolic functions to benefit the host by synthesizing vitamin K, folate, and biotin, among other as well as participating in the absorption of magnesium, calcium, and iron ions.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

LPS then combines with pattern recognition receptor CD14, which, together, are recognized by toll-like receptor-4 TLR4a major component of the innate immune system that maintains intestinal homeostasis. The intestinal gut microbiota is a complex organ system that is critical for the health of the host. Acetate and propionate short chain fatty acids stimulate adipogenesis via GPCR Find articles by Kiran Mazloom.

Flint, H. Mol Aspects Med ; 34 : 39 — This is not entirely surprising; infant gut microbiota changes drastically over faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy first few years of life, differs substantially across infants, and is affected strongly by other factors, including mode of delivery, breastfeeding, and antibiotic usage [ 549 ]. We have corroborated that the reduction of F. Regional variation limits applications of healthy gut microbiome reference ranges and disease models. The random forest using genus-level taxa as predictors had an out of bag error rate of

The clinical treatment of obesity has been met with immense challenges, related at least in part to the complexity of its pathophysiology in the context of biopsychosocial variability. Holst J. Bacterial imprinting faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy the neonatal immune system: lessons from maternal cells? The abundance in, and diversity of, certain bacteria may favor energy harvest and metabolic pathways leading to obesity. Materials and methods Ethics approval and consent to participate All cows were maintained in the research herd at the Agriculture Victoria Ellinbank Centre, Hazeldean Road, Ellinbank, Victoria, Australia. The counts of assembled read pairs, clusters and taxa were plotted and can be seen in S1 Fig.

Background

E-mail: kati. Clinically relevant data of all the patients was collected Table 1. Carpenter, M. A higher abundance of the genus Blautia has also been associated with glucose intolerance

Therefore, current evidence shows microbiota compositional differences in obese compared to healthy, non-obese organisms. Please review our privacy policy. Butyrate inhibits pro-proliferative miRa by diminishing c-Myc-induced miRa cluster transcription in faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy colon cancer cells. However, in a separate experiment, LP14 had no influence on serum triacylglycerol accumulation following olive oil administration in Triton WRtreated mice, which suggest that dietary fat absorption is unaffected by LP14 and its beneficial effects are achieved through an alternate mechanism [ 92 ]. This barrier consists of a mucous layer, antimicrobial peptides, secretory IgA, and epithelial junction adhesion complex [ 62 ]. In general, 16s rRNA amplicons are not discriminatory at the species level of taxonomy. Cows, milk microbes and DNA sequencing Cows were husbanded and milk samples collected as described[ 43 ].

This suggests that manipulation of gut microbiota through dietary faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy other means may confer beneficial effects by restoring gut functional integrity and reverse dysbiosis that is characteristic of obesity. Pouthidis et al. This knowledge coupled with more affordable profiling of individual gut microbial differences could lead to tailored efficacious therapies in the future [ ]. No anesthesia, euthanasia, or any kind of animal sacrifice was part of the study. Yan F.

MeSH terms

Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitziiand a proposal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. Enterotypes in the landscape of gut microbial community composition. Loads of A. The study measurements and samples were obtained at the first study visit, which was considered the baseline of the intervention trial.

  • Energy, MJ 8.

  • Fig 4.

  • The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development. Volume

  • Data were normalized to total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in the same sample. Abstract Background: Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions.

Genome Med. In addition, the gut microbiota has been shown to influence intestinal permeability, mainly in animal studies 6818 Standard DNA prdgnancy from F. Email address Sign up. Gut 63, — Finally, further confirmation of our results in a larger cohort would be required given that we have engaged a limited number of subjects, and thus it would provide robustness to those findings not sustained after FRD assessment. However, there is limited information on gut microbial characteristics and dependence in pregnant women.

Received Dec 14; Accepted Jan Casein micelles were solubilised and removed from the pelleted material by the addition of EDTA to 30mM, further centrifugation and saline washes. Related Articles. We considered it important therefore, milk being a potential source of F.

Introduction

Changes in Microbiota Composition The number and the ratio of microbial groups undergoing changes in the intestine following probiotic administration have been well documented. For example, in one study, pregnant women were fed a probiotic mixture containing B. The rising prevalence of obesity: Part A: Impact on public health. Trends Immunol.

Co-occurrence network analysis of gut bacteria found in feces, showed that F. Diabetes Care 30S—S Background Obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has increased dramatically in recent years [ 12 ]. The limitations of our study relate to the choice of study population, overweight women in early pregnancy, because it is possible that intestinal permeability is further altered as pregnancy proceeds toward delivery. Few clinical studies, to our knowledge, have investigated the impact of diet on intestinal permeability in well-nourished conditions. Alterations in the gut microbiota across pregnant stages have been of special concern. In particular, A.

ALSO READ: Obese Cat Gif Funny

Obesiyt Gastroenterol. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral. Up to 50 ng of genomic DNA template was added in each reaction. Parameters are divided into four categories and are colored based on their types defined in Supplementary Data 1. To test whether the compositional pattern of pregnant women is stable at lower taxonomic levels, we then compared our cohort to the Guangdong Gut Microbiome Project GGMP cohort 26 consisting of healthy adults enrolled from 14 districts in Guangdong Province at the bacterial genus level. Seksik, P. Pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and the gut microbiota of mothers and their infants.

  • Kuczynski, J. Accordingly, plasmid preparations for A.

  • Likewise, administration of Bifidobacterium probiotic strains increased fecal Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum SPMB. Yoon J.

  • Wagner 1Marci K. Microbial metabolic networks at the mucus layer lead to diet-independent butyrate and vitamin B 12 production by intestinal symbionts.

  • References 1.

  • Interplay of gut microbiota, probiotics in obesity: A review.

References 1. Microbial influences in inflammatory bowel diseases. Referring to quantitative analyses, total F. Food Nutr.

Email alerts Article activity alert. Mokkala, K. Supplementary Data 8. Nowadays there is a wide variety of clinical and experimental studies revealing microbial implication in IBD Sartor,; Seksik et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers.

References

Animal vs. Poult Sci. Poutahidis T. S2 Fig.

Gut microbiota modulation and its relationship with obesity using prebiotic fibers and probiotics: A review. High-throughput metataxonomic characterization of the raw milk microbiota identifies changes reflecting lactation stage and storage conditions. For example, one study assessed the effects of the prebiotic XOS, probiotic L. Lipids Health Dis.

ALSO READ: Best Core Exercises For Obese People

Derrien, M. Accepted : 10 Faevalibacterium Furet, J. Both of these showed and pregnancy consistent taxonomic associations with the gut microbiota. Eight core OTUs 1. Resection in CD patients was not a determining factor for A. The intestinal epithelium forms a critical barrier against invading pathogens and other harmful entities, and consists of adjacent epithelial cells joined together by junctional complexes.

Raecalibacterium L. Felsenstein J. Apoptosis of adipose tissue is associated with the induction of TNF-alpha and uncoupling protein Next Forgot single species. When energy expenditure is low, AMPK is decreased resulting in less activation of enzymes involved in beta oxidation, including acetyl CoA carboxylase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, thus leading to obesity [ 29 ]. Current opinion in gastroenterology.

Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on membrane microdomain localization of tight junction proteins in experimental colitis. The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development. Barker D.

Comparison of the effect of daily obesity and pregnancy of probiotic compared with low-fat conventional yogurt on weight loss in healthy obese women following an energy-restricted diet: A randomized controlled trial1. Abstract Obesity has been associated with structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Introduction Obesity is now considered a worldwide pandemic affecting approximately 1 in 3 individuals [ 1 ]. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii: from microbiology to diagnostics and prognostics. European Journal of Nutrition.

A metagenome-wide association obesity of gut faecalibacteroum in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia ; 57 : — However, gut microbiota during infancy has been associated with rapid early growth and later overweight and obesity [ 1415 ], and numerous exposures known to impact the early gut microbiota, such as birth via cesarean section and antibiotics, have also been associated with increased obesity risk [ 1617 ]. The production of menaquinones vitamin K2 by intestinal bacteria and their role in maintaining coagulation homeostasis. Canfora, E. Glenwright, A. Reprints and Permissions.

Most of the subjects carried both species or F. Gut microbiota and diet in patients with different glucose tolerance. Indeed, F.

However, loads in E2 and E3 subjects resembled that of CD patients, while for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy subjects, their profiles were closer to that observed in H subjects. Caporaso, J. The proposed mechanism in low-grade inflammation—associated disorders is presumed to involve heightened passage of inflammation-initiating factors, such as bacterial LPS, through the intestinal barrier into the circulation. Standard DNA templates from F. The results were reported as the change in serum zonulin associated with an increase per unit of each predictor. Birth mode-dependent association between pre-pregnancy maternal weight status and the neonatal intestinal microbiome. Importantly, all 8 host properties, including residency status, height, age, and the 5 maternal weight parameters, explained a combination of 1.

ALSO READ: Sin Of Gluttony Overeating Symptoms

This suggests most of the single base differences are likely to be biological rather than artefactual as all the DNA samples were processed together and error rates from PCR or sequencing should be similar across an experiment. Holst J. Jung S. Animal vs. Pothuraju R.

In addition, correlation analysis of their load has also been conducted obesiry provide supporting evidence on the effect of one population prusnitzii the other, or obesity and whether or not they are influenced by similar gut factors. For all linear regression models, the normal distribution of standardized residuals was confirmed. Regarding the qualitative analyses, absence of F. Medication at sampling was also considered in order to determine if any of the current therapies are effective in restoring these species levels to those found in H. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. We aim to explore this hypothesis in future work in the full cohort of NoMIC infants. Serum zonulin has been used as a serum marker for intestinal permeability in several studies 1 — 4 ; and further increased serum concentrations have been detected in a range of metabolic conditions, including obesity 1obesity-associated insulin resistance 2and type 1 9 and type 2 3 diabetes.

The members of each network cluster come from different cows, suggesting inoculation of mammary glands from a single source in the shared environment of the dairy. Probiotic screening and safety evaluation of Lactobacillus strains from plants, artisanal goat cheese, human stools, and breast milk. Bernini L. Mol Biol Rep. Cani P.

The pregnacy purport that there are likely mutualistic interactions in the mixtures and therefore able to share with different metabolites, affect diverse receptors, and produce biologically-significant compounds that have synergistic effects [ ]. Fig 1 illustrates the limited variability of the 20 most abundant families including unassigned across the herd of 21 cows except for cows and which were kept indoors rather than in the open field. References 1. In addition, this probiotic strain induced changes in expression of several hepatic genes involved in regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism including increased IRS2, Akt2, AMPK, LPL, and reduced CD36, resulting in reduced insulin resistance, improved glucose tolerance and insulin response.

Ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver. The authors noted obesit the observed reduced insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia could be explained by adipose tissue immune cell-remodeling, primarily affecting macrophages. For example, experiments where Lactobacillus plantarum A7 containing soy milk or regular soy milk was administered for eight weeks to patients with type 2 diabetes showed no significant differences in BMI or waist to hip ratio between the probiotic and placebo groups [ ]. The abundance of fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in relation to obesity and gender in Chinese adults. Felsenstein J.

Numerous studies have shown that the gut microbiota not only has obesity and pregnancy key role in the physiology of the host but also plays a modulatory role in obesity. Single-species versus dual-species probiotic supplementation as an emerging therapeutic strategy for obesity. The distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. Stanislawski, M. Morgan, X. Lu, M.

ALSO READ: Body Mass Index Calculator For Muscular Build Up

The igraph input files edges list, node attributes and legend, see figshare[ 44 ] were manually generated using the swarm2 output files that contain the swarm sequence obesity and pregnancy and structure. The complex microbiota of raw milk. Furthermore, when tested for its immuno-modulatory role, L. Lastly, administration of the plant-derived lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 that was heat-killed significantly lowered BMI, body fat, and waist circumference, whereas live LP28 and placebo exhibited no significant differences. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Assessment of bacterial diversity in breast milk using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The role of bifidobacteria in gut barrier function after thermal injury in rats.

Women with and without excess pre-pregnancy pregnanncy generally had similar characteristics Table 1. Further study was proposed to comprehensively investigate the gut microbial differences between two cohorts, especially the patterns that are specifically associated with gestation. This is a very important area of research because the gut microbiota is alterable—through diet, pre- and pro-biotics, and antibiotic usage. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity.

Impact of the obesity and microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease. Lactobacillus salivarius. Spaiser S. This includes the use of small cohorts in human trials, lack of long-term follow-up studies, and large differences in the probiotic strains used and their mechanistic variability. Pathophysiological role of host microbiota in the development of obesity. In general, 16s rRNA amplicons are not discriminatory at the species level of taxonomy. Boroni Moreira A.

This species is not only important for obesity and pregnancy host, but also for gut microbial community. Obeeity to main content. When analyzing IBD groups by disease location, no significant differences were observed, probably due to the high dispersion of data and to the fact that when separating by location the number of patients included within each category is reduced. Mira-Pascual, L.

The gut microbiota has been associated with wellness and disease 1. Rios-Covian, D. Article Pgausnitzii Google Scholar 7. For example, an anti-inflammatory commensal Faecalibacterium is negatively correlated with gut permeability during pregnancy 19decreased in women with gestational diabetes mellitus GDM 20and involved in infant gut microbial maturation

Apoptosis of adipose tissue is associated with the induction of TNF-alpha and uncoupling protein Interplay of gut microbiota, probiotics faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy obesity: A review. Mol Cell Endocrinol. They were processed in parallel with the DNA from milk. However, whether gut microbiota influences FIAF levels in obesity is still unclear since high fat diet-induced obesity in germ free mice only increases mRNA expression of FIAF in the intestine but not in the circulation [ 28 ]. This suggests most of the single base differences are likely to be biological rather than artefactual as all the DNA samples were processed together and error rates from PCR or sequencing should be similar across an experiment.

This suggests most of the single base differences are likely to be biological rather obesigy artefactual as all the DNA samples were processed together and error rates from PCR or sequencing should be similar across an experiment. BMC Microbiol. In some clinical trials, Bifidobacterium was used in combination with other probiotic strains, including Lactobacillus. Ohland C.

Wolever T. In this study involving 81 obese postmenopausal women, the probiotic mixture at both low and high doses positively modified glucose metabolism, lipid profile, waist circumference, visceral fat, serum uric acid levels, and LPS concentration. In our milk samples 35 different phyla can be detected containing different families.

Probiotics for experimental obesity prevention: Focus on strain dependence and viability of faecalibacteriuj. Probiotics interact with the obesity and either in transit or by colonization with several downstream mechanisms underlying their health-promoting effects. In 2 cows, Pseudomonadaceae comprised the majority of the bacteria. Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, certain metabolites and the proteins involved in their metabolism were associated with low microbial gene richness MGR.

Bear in mind: F. Health Faecalibacterium prausnitzii obesity and pregnancy. The h milk sample was pooled with the previous day's h collection sample which had been stored on ice. Gamma-aminobutyric acid GABAa precursor to histidine production that is linked to downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is one such pathway that is negatively affected in obesity leading to further inflammation [ 55 ]. This, in turn, leads to enhanced adipocyte LPL activity resulting in increased uptake of fatty acids, increased fat storage and ultimately obesity [ 11 ].

Effect of rectal infusion of short chain fatty acids in human subjects. Finally, to test if the Faecalibacterium -related centroid sequences found in our milk samples can be differentiated from other Ruminococcaceae species using the 16s rRNA gene V4 amplicon, we used muscle to align the 6 most abundant centroids to 3 reference strains of F. J Agric Food Chem. Surprisingly, B. The figure showing the most abundant families indicates the pattern is similar across 19 of the 21 cows.

In addition, in this cohort, only 11 OTUs and no functional modules were altered between pregnant women with GDM and normoglycemic obesity and pregnancy women. Specifically, a higher abundance of F. The participants were given instructions on how to record their food intake and during the study visit diaries were checked for completeness and accuracy with the help of an illustrated portion booklet. Gut 63, — Random forests.

Human gut microbiome: Hopes, threats and promises. Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid. Keywords: microbiota, epidemiologic distribution of obesity, adiposity, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium. Anti-obesity obesitty of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 in high-sucrose diet-induced obese mice. This, in turn, leads to enhanced adipocyte LPL activity resulting in increased uptake of fatty acids, increased fat storage and ultimately obesity [ 11 ]. Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?