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Cockcroft gault obesity – Accurate GFR in obesity—protocol for a systematic review

For the purposes of drug dosing or estimating GFR in patients with body size that is very different than average, GFR can be non-normalized using the following equation:

William Murphy
Sunday, December 9, 2018
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  • For most renally eliminated drugs, some derivation of body weight is typically used to select the ideal dose, whereas renal function is employed to help guide dosing interval selection.

  • Accessed August 5, Abstract One-third of adult Americans are currently classified as obese.

  • Published : 22 June

  • Body mass index categories and mortality risk in US adults: the effect of overweight and obesity on advancing death.

About the Creator

For this reason, other equations have been developed to aid clinicians in estimating cockcroft gault obesity function for the purposes of drug dosing. Am J Health Syst Pharm. Jelliffe RW. Mathematical Biosciences. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate.

  • The approval number was HS H

  • Most accurate method for estimating GFR.

  • Nephron ; 16 : 31 — Impact of various body weights and serum creatinine concentrations on the bias and accuracy of the Cockcroft-Gault equation.

  • It is freely filtered and catabolized in the proximal tubule without being secreted [ 41 ]. More on this topic Dose recommendations for gentamicin in the real-world obese population with varying body weight and renal dys function.

Cockcroft gault obesity ; 31 : — Lean body mass normalizes the effect of obesity on renal function. About the Creator Donald W. All rights reserved. Pradaxa dabigatran [prescribing information]. Body weights, recalibrated creatinines and renal function assessment formulae.

You could not be signed in. Accessed August 5, US units. Similarly to elderly patientsclinicians may be tempted to round creatinine in underweight patients to account for less muscle mass; however, this practice is not supported by the literature. Show equation ».

Introduction

Impact of various body cockcroft gault obesity and serum creatinine concentrations on the bias and accuracy of the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Similarly, for antibiotics, under-dosing of medication could result in an undertreated infection, contributing to prolonged illness and rise of antibiotic resistance, whereas over-dosing may lead to toxicity. Accurate GFR in obesity—protocol for a systematic review. Ann Pharmacother ; 38 : 30 — 5. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults.

  • N Am J Med Sci. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

  • COVID patients can become kidney patients. Predicting creatinine clearance and renal drug clearance in obese patients from estimated fat-free body mass.

  • Published : 22 June In the process of conversion, however, the non-normalized value will also overestimate GFR in obese patients.

  • Serum creatinine production is approximated based on lean body weight because muscle tissue not fat is responsible for creatine production. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion.

We will calculate the Kappa for agreement between the reviewers. Log In. The calculation hierarchy described above is followed by most electronic medical records when calculating CrCl. Obesity and hospitalization over the adult life course: does duration of exposure increase use? Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 54 : — Tikosyn dofetilide [prescribing information]. Availability of data and materials Not applicable.

Follow Us! Obesity Comparison of drug dosing recommendations based on measured GFR and kidney function estimating equations. Download all slides. Show equation ». Most conventional, commonly used equations to estimate renal function require that patients have a stable renal function.

Additional information

Estimating creatinine clearance in elderly patients with low serum creatinine concentrations. Bioelectric impedance analysis was used to estimate fat-free weight FFW. Multiple studies have compared the equations for their impact on drug dosages.

A newer equation, called LBW 19 gauot be a more promising estimation of lean body weight and has been derived and validated with actual patient data. The MDRD equation was originally developed in child as a six-variable equation, but has since been updated to a simpler, four-variable equation in two variations to reflect the conventional and IDMS laboratory methods. Please check for further notifications by email. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. Jelliffe RW. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Lean body weight LBW

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Volume For more information, read more about IDMS. CG is no longer recommended for use because it gau,t not been expressed using standardized creatinine values. The following medications have been shown to falsely elevate serum creatinine: 1220 Particularly for renally dosing medications, the Cockcroft-Gault equation has been the long-standing gold standard for the estimation of creatinine clearance for decades. Address correspondence to Dr. Sign In or Create an Account.

Reclast zoledronic acid [prescribing information]. Ann Pharmacother ; 38 : 30 — 5. The influence of body size descriptors on the estimation of kidney function in normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese adults. Anesthesiology ; : — Certain patient groups have dramatically different serum creatinine production or elimination compared to the normal patient population. Although interesting, it is a much more imprecise solution to the problem. J Clin Lab Anal.

The preferred optimal method of obesity initiation is either with a fistula hemodialysis or a peritoneal dialysis catheter peritoneal dialysis. We will extend our literature searching by 1 reviewing the bibliographic reference lists of studies selected from electronic databases; 2 examining the bibliography of any identified systematic review, narrative review, and opinion for relevant studies; 3 exploring web-based registries of clinical trials clinicalTrials. Henry Gault, my mentor at the time. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in a patient population: effect of age, gender, and body weight. These will be reviewed by both the reviewers for the final selection of studies. Estimation of creatinine clearance in morbidly obese patients.

From the Creator

There is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate method for estimation of GFR or CLcr in patients with obesity. Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 65 : — 5. Diabete Metab. Pharmacotherapy ; 32 : —

  • To overcome this, we will take all efforts to contact the study authors to obtain more complete information from unpublished studies.

  • Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.

  • Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

  • Citing articles via Web of Science In underweight patients, a low serum creatinine may be more reflective of a decrease in production rather than an increased rate of renal elimination.

  • The third challenge will be if data is not separately presented for obese patients and not stratified by 3 classes of obesity. Accurate measurement of GFR is cumbersome.

Meta-analysis in clinical trials. It was developed in patients with mean BMI Decisions about categorizing CKD, planning modality of renal replacement therapies, and adjusting dosages of medications excreted by the kidneys are done using these equations. Google Scholar Crossref. PubMed Article Google Scholar 8.

Devine BJ. Estimating aminoglycoside dosage requirements in patients with low serum creatinine concentrations. Fractional adjustment of predicted creatinine clearance obesity females. Historically, the Devine equation 18 has been used to estimate fat-free, ideal, or lean body weight all terms generally meaning the same thing. Certain patient groups have dramatically different serum creatinine production or elimination compared to the normal patient population. Jelliffe RW. Email alerts Article activity alert.

Publication types

Stable Unstable creatinine. Quantification of lean bodyweight. Show equation ». Cite Cite Jasmina A. Press 'Calculate' to view calculation results.

Unfortunately, many hospitalized patients do not have stable renal function. The literature does not support this practice as it often results in an underestimation of true renal function. Am J Kidney Dis. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. Influence of renal function and dialysis on drug disposition.

For more information, read more cockcroff IDMS. PMID Am J Kidney Dis. There is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate method for estimation of GFR or CLcr in patients with obesity. The Cockcroft-Gault equation relies on total body weight and so overestimates GFR in patients with obesity. CrCl or GFR. For this reason, other equations have been developed to aid clinicians in estimating renal function for the purposes of drug dosing.

Publication types

J Clin Pharmacol ; 23 : — Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through For Permissions, please email: journals. Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 66 : — 8.

While this obdsity a landmark equation for its era, its use has become deprecated in favor of newer equations. The following cockcroft gault obesity have been shown to falsely elevate serum creatinine: 1220 Most users should sign in with their email address. Most conventional, commonly used equations to estimate renal function require that patients have a stable renal function. Am J Kidney Dis. In one of the largest study on the topic to date of nearly overweight and obese patients, the following conclusions can be drawn:

Estimating aminoglycoside dosage requirements in patients with low serum creatinine concentrations. To purchase gau,t term access, please sign in obesity your Oxford Academic account above. Inker, AS. Non-black Black. The MDRD equation is more accurate than the Cockcroft-Gault method particularly when using total body weightbut it is rarely used for drug dosing because most medications are validated using the Cockcroft-Gault method. There is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate method for estimation of GFR or CLcr in patients with obesity.

Estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

In one of the largest cockcroft gault obesity on the topic to date of nearly overweight and obese patients, the following conclusions can be drawn: One-third of adult Americans are currently classified as obese. All rights reserved. Manjunath P.

Certain patient groups have dramatically different serum creatinine obesity or elimination compared to the normal patient population. Both have been shown to be more accurate than the CG formula. Physiologic changes associated with obesity can potentially alter the clearance of commonly used drugs. Sign In or Create an Account.

  • Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 17 : e53 — Pre-emptive transplantation requires a few months of preparation to work up the potential recipient-donor pair, and prognostication depends on progression and level of kidney function, done with the help of eGFR.

  • Letter: Creatinine clearance: bedside estimate. Devine BJ.

  • You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Henry Gault, my mentor at the time.

  • OK Clear. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.

Quantification of lean bodyweight. Estimating aminoglycoside clearance and creatinine clearance in underweight patients. In one of the largest study on cockcroft gault obesity topic to date of nearly overweight and obese patients, the following conclusions can be drawn: In underweight patients, a low serum creatinine may be more reflective of a decrease in production rather than an increased rate of renal elimination.

Manjunath P. Get Email Updates. Permissions Icon Permissions. In underweight patients, a low serum creatinine may be more reflective of a decrease in production rather than an increased rate of renal elimination.

Background

Am J Health Syst Pharm. Get Email Updates. Skip Nav Cockcroft gault obesity Article Navigation. June 12, Many equations have an adjustment factor to account for the fact that female patients have less muscle mass, and therefore produce less creatinine.

Apart from diabetes itself, obesity is also independently associated with CKD [ 712 ]. Am Heart J ; : Follow Us! Password Show. Patient characteristics, recalibrated creatinine concentrations and renal function formula.

Sensitivity and multivariate meta-regression analyses will be performed to assess the effects of obesity facts factors and socio-demographic characteristics reported in included studies on the meta-analytic estimates. View author publications. Poncsak, J. N Am J Med Sci. We were not the first to consider adjusting for, or re-expressing the RFA formula in order to account for, the change in the creatinine assay method.

Male Female. In scholarly journals on child obesity facts of the largest study on the topic to date of nearly overweight and obese patients, the following conclusions can be drawn: Quantification of lean bodyweight. Volume Don't have an account? To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. The controversy relates to the use of 2 body size descriptors that confound these equations.

Estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

An instantaneous bolus was used to remove the influence of renal function on drug elimination during the infusion. Numerical inputs and outputs Formula. It was published in Sheryl A. We will review all selected studies.

Sign in via your Institution Sign in. I agree to the terms cockcorft conditions. The MDRD equation was originally developed in 7 as a six-variable equation, but has since been updated to a simpler, four-variable equation in two variations to reflect the conventional and IDMS laboratory methods. Follow Us! Written communication available for download. Sign In. Most conventional, commonly used equations to estimate renal function require that patients have a stable renal function.

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COVID patients can become kidney patients. The Cockcroft-Gault equation may overestimate renal function when obesity total body weight. Cockcroft-Gault Formula. The MDRD equation was originally developed in 7 as a six-variable equation, but has since been updated to a simpler, four-variable equation in two variations to reflect the conventional and IDMS laboratory methods. Apr ;55 4 Thank you for submitting a comment on this article.

The original study was based on data from male patients with stable renal function. Follow Us! Lean body weight LBW The equation is derived from a "fat free mass" equation and was shown to be superior to the Cockcroft-Gault and Jelliffe methods when using total body weight. All rights reserved. Sign in via your Institution Sign in.

It is not recommended for clinical use. Jelliffe We've filled out some of the form to show you this clinical calculator in action. Drug Intell Clin Pharm.

Physiologic changes associated with obesity can potentially alter the clearance of commonly used drugs. Letter: Creatinine clearance: bedside estimate. You may specify whether you are entering serum creatinine as an IDMS or 'conventional' assay by clicking the "Config" icon in the top, right-hand corner of the page heading.

  • In one of the largest study on the topic to date of nearly overweight and obese patients, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  • National Kidney Foundation.

  • Calculates CrCl according to the Cockcroft-Gault equation.

  • Pediatr Nephrol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 50 : — 7.

Cockcroft specializes in asthma practice and research. The quality assessment and the presence of potential bias within studies will be assessed independently by the PI AA and SS. Pharmacotherapy ; 35 : — Setia UGross PA.

These methods are all time consuming, logistically challenging, not widely available, and expensive [ 15 ]. Influence of obesityy on metabolic effect of insulin in human adipose tissue in vitro. Most institutions are using IDMS by this point, but you should contacting your laboratory if you are unsure of your assay. Recent developments in the evaluation of glomerular filtration rate: is there a place for beta-trace? Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in a patient population: effect of age, gender, and body weight. Together with the knowledge user and the project experts, we will address the usefulness of the findings for clinical practice and formulate recommendations.

These will be reviewed by both the reviewers for the final selection of studies. Devine BJ. We conducted a single-centre, retrospective study of adult patients receiving gentamicin at a university teaching hospital from stored pharmacokinetic research data collected between and

It is also cockcroft gault obesity to be inaccurate in significant obesity and fluid retention when "ideal weight" should probably be used. Gajlt response to the lack of consensus on which body weight to use, Brown et al. Digoxin disposition in obesity: clinical pharmacokinetic investigation. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Influence of extreme obesity on the body disposition and neuromuscular blocking effect of atracurium. PubMed Article Google Scholar 3. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults.

  • This correction factor was shown to be more precise and less bias than rounding or making no adjustment.

  • There are primarily two laboratory methods for measuring serum creatinine: a number of conventional older methods eg, alkaline picrateand the newer IDMS method. Sign In Forgot password?

  • Using the ADAPT fitting routine, each concentration was weighted to the reciprocal of its assay error variance i.

  • Because serum creatinine undergoes tubular secretion, any medications that interfere cockcroft gault obesity this process will falsely elevate the patient's serum creatinine; however, this will not impact the patient's true GFR. Glomerular filtration rate equations overestimate creatinine clearance in older individuals enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal study on aging: impact on renal drug dosing.

  • Peake MWhiting M. Borrell LN, Samuel L.

Home Academy Blog About. Am J Hosp Pharm. Estimating renal function for drug dosing: rewriting the gospel? Each RFA formula was examined against standard dosing tables for gentamicin. Creatinine Clearance Calculator. Comparisons of the strength of associations with future type 2 diabetes risk among anthropometric obesity indicators, including waist-to-height ratio: a meta-analysis.

Chow MS, Schweizer R. This means it will give inaccurate results. Estimation of creatinine clearance in morbidly obese patients. In underweight patients, a low serum creatinine may be more reflective of a decrease in production rather than an increased rate of renal elimination. The Cockcroft-Gault CG formula has not been expressed using standardized creatinine values. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Multiple studies have compared the equations for their impact on drug dosages.

RFA standard literature ranges; associated units. The calculation hierarchy described above is followed by most electronic medical records when obesity Cpckcroft. Thus, incorrect estimation of GFR may lead to obese patients starting dialysis sub-optimally. Anesthesiology ; : — Sensitivity and multivariate meta-regression analyses will be performed to assess the effects of clinical factors and socio-demographic characteristics reported in included studies on the meta-analytic estimates.

  • Estimating glomerular filtration rate in kidney transplantation: a comparison between serum creatinine and cystatin C-based methods. Some study designs, e.

  • COVID patients can become kidney patients. Because serum creatinine undergoes tubular secretion, any medications that interfere with this process will falsely elevate the patient's serum creatinine; however, this will not impact the patient's true GFR.

  • Meta-analysis in clinical trials. It is the dedication of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis.

  • OK Clear.

  • It is important to note that African-American status within the formula is never calculated automatically outside the research setting. Beta-trace protein in serum: a new marker of glomerular filtration rate in the creatinine-blind range.

Prescribing of direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation based on estimation of renal function using standard and modified Cockcroft-Gault equations: a retrospective analysis. Freedman DDiaconis P. Obes Res. It provides results in milliliters per minute which can be utilized for medication dosing.

  • Am J Kidney Dis.

  • Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. For the purposes of drug dosing or estimating GFR in patients with body size that is very different than average, GFR can be non-normalized using the following equation:

  • Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal cockcroft gault obesity study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. A newer equation, called LBW 19 may be a more promising estimation of lean body weight and has been derived and validated with actual patient data.

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Devine BJ. It should not be used for cockcroft gault obesity dosing or to estimate GFR. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. For more information, read more about IDMS. Comparison of drug dosing recommendations based on measured GFR and kidney function estimating equations. Jelliffe RW.

The literature does not support this practice as it often results in an underestimation of true renal function. Estimating glomerular filtration rate with cockcroft gault obesity modification of diet in renal disease equation: implications for pharmacy. IDMS Conventional. Furthermore, a change in total body mass does not increase the size of the kidney or GFR proportionally. In underweight patients, a low serum creatinine may be more reflective of a decrease in production rather than an increased rate of renal elimination. Generally speaking, these equations are developed using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic estimation model, and are less accurate when renal function is improving rather than worsening.

Patients and methods

For this reason, other equations have been developed to aid cockxroft in cockcroft gault obesity renal function for the purposes of drug dosing. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. A computer program for estimation of creatinine clearance from unstable serum creatinine levels, age, sex, and weight.

Am J Health Syst Pharm. Clin Pharm. Figure 1. Substances Pharmaceutical Preparations Creatinine. All analysis will be performed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis software version 2. Intravenous ciprofloxacin disposition in obesity.

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Follow Us! Estimating creatinine clearance in elderly patients with low serum creatinine concentrations. Download all slides. Creatinine assays are standardized to reference methods. Tricky transitions: Conversations on resiliency for new practitioners.

Estimating glomerular filtration rate with a modification of diet in renal disease equation: implications for scholarly journals on child obesity facts. Predicting creatinine clearance and renal drug clearance in obese patients from estimated fat-free body mass. The study used actual body weight, but mentioned that a correction factor of some kind should be used in patients with marked obesity or ascites. Am J Hosp Pharm. The following medications have been shown to falsely elevate serum creatinine: 1220 PMID

Creating an account is free, easy, obesity takes about 60 seconds. Why Use. J Antimicrob Chemother ; 52 : — Fortunately, newer data have shown that this correction factor is actually relatively accurate, with an "optimal" correction factor between 0. Devine BJ. Estimation of creatinine clearance in morbidly obese patients. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing.

Experience with a once-daily aminoglycoside program administered to 2, adult patients. Open Menu. Predicting creatinine clearance and renal drug clearance in obese patients from estimated fat-free body mass.

  • Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics, cardiac safety, and dosing for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in children. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

  • Since the Cockcroft-Gault can overestimate kidney function, there is a risk of overdosing drugs with narrow therapeutic index that has occurred with chemotherapeutic agents.

  • All rights reserved.

  • The preferred optimal method of dialysis initiation is either with a fistula hemodialysis or a peritoneal dialysis catheter peritoneal dialysis. Some adjustments in weight are suggested for calculation [ 3336 ] such as ideal body weight or adjusted ideal body weightbut are uncommonly done in clinical practice.

  • Devine BJ.

Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U. Select Format Select format. Advanced Search. All rights reserved.

You may specify whether you are entering serum creatinine as an IDMS or 'conventional' assay by clicking the "Config" icon in the top, right-hand corner of the page heading. The Cockcroft-Gault equation is the gold standard for estimating renal function for the purposes of drug dosing. MDRD four-variable. Predicting creatinine clearance and renal drug clearance in obese patients from estimated fat-free body mass. Covariates known to contribute to alteration in CL cr were used to exclude patients.

Tricky transitions: Conversations on resiliency for new practitioners. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation. In most cases, this equation should not be used to renally dose medications because most drug studies use the Cockcroft-Gault equation.

Certain patient groups have dramatically different serum creatinine production or elimination compared to the normal patient population. Citing articles via Web of Science Particularly for renally dosing medications, the Cockcroft-Gault equation has been the long-standing gold standard for the estimation of creatinine clearance for decades. Amy Barton Pai, Pharm. Download all slides.

Gault was a pioneer in the field of nephrology and his work on urine enzymology was a major influence on the discovery of the diagnosis of the rejection of kidney transplants. Ann Pharmacother ; 41 : — Estimating glomerular filtration rate in kidney transplantation: a comparison between serum creatinine and cystatin C-based methods. Some adjustments in weight are suggested for calculation [ 3336 ] such as ideal body weight or adjusted ideal body weightbut are uncommonly done in clinical practice.

Estimating creatinine clearance in elderly patients with low serum creatinine cockcroft gault obesity. The following medications have been shown to falsely elevate serum creatinine: 1220 Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Jasmina A. Home Academy Blog About.

The MDRD equation is more accurate than obssity Cockcroft-Gault method particularly when using total body weightbut it is rarely used for drug dosing because most medications are validated using the Cockcroft-Gault method. Cockcroft-Gault, Lean Body Weight Latest Most Read Most Cited Entrustable professional activities for pharmacy students: A primer for solid organ transplant preceptors. The literature does not support this practice as it often results in an underestimation of true renal function. Back to Top. The Cockcroft-Gault CG formula has not been expressed using standardized creatinine values.

The original study was based on data from male patients with stable renal function. Estimates of creatinine clearance CL cr based on equations and various body-size descriptors were compared with hour measured CL cr values in morbidly obese patients. Accessed December 18, The role of the alternate body size descriptor, lean body weight to estimate CLcr in obese patients is reviewed. Written communication available for download.

Objectives: To evaluate the ability of body-weight-driven renal function assessment RFA formulae to predict on-target elimination rate ranges for gentamicin in patients with varying degrees of renal function. We will extend our literature searching by 1 reviewing the bibliographic reference lists of studies selected from electronic databases; 2 examining the bibliography of any identified systematic review, narrative review, and opinion for relevant studies; 3 exploring web-based registries of clinical trials clinicalTrials. Stable Unstable creatinine. Desired dosing interval.

Inlaboratories throughout North America adopted a new creatinine assay using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry IDMS method cockcroft gault obesity of the colorimetric Jaffe reaction. Dersch DMcCormack J. The original Cockcroft-Gault equation, derived inrelied on non-standardized creatinine measurements. Efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic control, weight loss and blood pressure reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med.

Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics. Obestiy of adult Americans are currently classified as obese. Volume The equation is derived from a "fat free mass" equation and was shown to be superior to the Cockcroft-Gault and Jelliffe methods when using total body weight. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.

The calculation hierarchy described above is followed by most electronic medical records when calculating CrCl. Ann Pharmacother ; 41 : — Dosing in obesity: a simple solution to a big problem.

The following medications have been shown to falsely elevate serum creatinine: 1220 Cockcroft-Gault, Lean Body Weight It should not be used for drug dosing or to estimate GFR. Most conventional, commonly used equations to estimate renal function require that patients have a stable renal function. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Particularly for renally dosing medications, the Cockcroft-Gault equation has been the long-standing gold standard for the estimation of creatinine clearance for decades.

US units. Tricky transitions: Conversations on resiliency for new practitioners. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. It is not recommended for clinical use.

Unfortunately, many hospitalized patients do not have stable renal function. Covariates known to contribute cocicroft alteration in CL cr were used to exclude patients. Issue Section:. The study used actual body weight, but mentioned that a correction factor of some kind should be used in patients with marked obesity or ascites. Don't have an account?

Since obesity is common and associated with many major illnesses, inaccurate dosing of medications potentially has an impact not only for an individual but also at a public health level. To overcome this, we will take all efforts to contact the study authors to obtain more complete information from unpublished studies. Updated January Am J Kidney Dis ; 54 : 33 — Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing.

Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access Cockcroft gault obesity purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Am J Med. A new simple and rapid method to monitor the renal function based on pharmacokinetic consideration of endogeneous creatinine. DOI

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