Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety – Subclinical hypothyroidism and depression: a meta-analysis

Clinical utility of the item geriatric depression scale GDS for use with young and middle-aged adults. Open in a separate window.

William Murphy
Saturday, January 27, 2018
Advertisement
  • Shan Z, et al.

  • Increased atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in untreated subclinical hypothyroidism. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease.

  • Front Endocrinol.

  • Third, the quality of evidence assessed with the GRADE scale was high, which indicates that further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect.

Publication types

We performed a sub-group analysis because of the clinical heterogeneity. Endogenous subclinical thyroid disorders, physical and cognitive function, depression, and mortality in older individuals. Figure 4.

  • Consistent with the distinct original data, we chose different effect models.

  • Many studies have reported that age is an inconvenient element that influences the path and symptomatology of a depressive episode 17 ,

  • Mental changes accompanying thyroid gland dysfunction.

  • You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Thyroid status, disability and cognitive function, and survival in old age.

Accessed December 31, Analyses were conducted from December 1,to September 1, Nonetheless, it is recommended that each laboratory should depression anxiety their own cut-off value to evaluate SCH based on the age, region, ethnic factors. However, the use of levothyroxine therapy among people with depression need to be considered carefully on an individual basis, weighing the risks and benefits of the treatment. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. A paradoxical difference in relationship between anxiety, depression and thyroid function in subjects on and not on T4: findings from the HUNT study.

Risk of depression among patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. A study with postmortem prefrontal cortex. Psychiatry Investig. It Feels So Bad: It Doesn't Have To Provides information about alcohol and drug addiction to children whose parents or friends' parents might have substance abuse problems. Disagreements were settled by consensus and the view of a third author Zhao as necessary. High serum TSH levels are associated with depression in the elderly. They performed additional analyses to address two common issues in this field.

Site branding

Please see our commenting policy for details. Psychopathological and cognitive features in subclinical hypothyroidism. Inan animal study illustrated that the density of subcliniacl T3 was slightly lower in the SCH group than the sham group, which indicated a dysfunction in thyroid hormones in the brains of SCH rats even though their plasma thyroid hormones were in the normal range The study researchers concluded that severe SCH is closely related to clinical manifestations of MDD and that patients with MDD should undergo regular screening of serum TSH levels to reduce the risk of suicide and psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the relationship between depressive symptoms and SCH is controversial, particularly in older patients, as the prevalence of SCH increases with age.

Results stayed robust in a sensitivity analysis excluding participants with antidepressant medication at baseline adjusted between-group difference, 0. Increased atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in untreated subclinical hypothyroidism. An introduction to kernel and nearest-neighbor nonparametric regression. J Nerv Ment Dis.

Psychiatry Res. CSF triiodothyronine rT3 levels in patients with affective disorders. Err on the side of full disclosure. Journal List Transl Psychiatry v. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry.

Want to read more?

Although subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety studies reported that L-T4 treatment hypothyrodism the benefit of improving depressive symptoms, the pathophysiological role of thyroid hormones in depression remains unclear 37 — Second, the included reports were designed as observational studies case control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies with different data collection methods retrospective and prospective. Recently, many publications have investigated whether SCH is connected to a higher risk of cognitive damage and depression in older populations 26 — The literature quality evaluation was conducted by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale Bone Miner.

Therefore, the use of various scales for the detection and quantification hypothjroidism depression may be limited by methodological heterogeneity, disturbing the horizontal comparisons among different studies. Overall, we found an insignificant difference in the following composite end point: the SMD for depressive scores was 0. However, in animal studies, thyroid hormones affect the neurotransmission of serotonin and noradrenaline, which play critical roles in the pathogenesis of depression and are the targets of current antidepressant therapy 38 — Next, 79 studies were assessed for eligibility by reviewing the full-text article. SCH participants were diagnosed according to the specific diagnostic criteria in each included study Table 1 and the controls for these studies included participants with euthyroid function. Meta-Analysis of odds ratios: current good practices. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of depression in persons with SCH. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate anxlety relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism SCH and depression. In addition, the fT4 values were considered regular if they were perceived as normal by the reviewers, even though details regarding the fT4 values were not indicated. Depression as measured by PHQ-9 versus clinical diagnosis as an independent predictor of long-term mortality in a prospective cohort of medical inpatients. Corresponding author.

Associated Data

The scale is scored from zero to nine stars, and the highest score indicates the best methodological quality. Disagreements were settled by consensus and the view of a third author Zhao as necessary. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. Standardization of a screening instrument PHQ for somatization syndromes in the general population.

Study selection Two reviewers Zhao and Chen separately bypothyroidism all potential subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety and abstracts. Low mood and response to Levothyroxine treatment in Indian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Front Endocrinol. Med Care. Results Study selection In total, articles were identified by the preliminary search of articles published by June 10, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Gender differences in depression and anxiety: the role of age.

ALSO READ: Pituitary Disorders Causing Hypothyroidism Symptoms

Prevalence of symptoms of depression in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Table 1: Sociodemographic data of both depression anxiety Click here to view. Thyroid ; High serum TSH levels are associated with depression in the elderly, which suggests that increased TSH could disturb the stability of 5-HT system and thereby facilitates the development of depression in SCH participants Furthermore, several subsequent studies have investigated the role of the Wnt signalling pathway in mood diseases, such as major depression 23 and bipolar disorder

Footnotes Funding. Panminerva Med. One problem that can complicate diagnosis is that depression and hypothyroidism share some of the same symptoms. An evaluation of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function in depression: results of a large-scaled and controlled study.

Res Synth Methods. Villar H. Nord J Psychiatry. Thyroid hormone therapy for older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. X-axis: positive values equal to the aggravation on depressive tendency. References 1. In cases of overt thyroid disorder, treating psychiatric symptoms with L-T4 supplementation is well indicated.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article

Arch Gerontol Geriatr. In total, articles were identified by the preliminary depression anxiety of articles published by June 10, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Subclinical hypothyroidism SCH is not associated with metabolic derangement, cognitive impairment, depression or poor quality of life QoL in elderly subjects. Severity classification on the Hamilton depression rating scale.

  • Outcomes Overall, we found an insignificant difference in the following composite end point: the SMD for depressive scores was 0. The primary outcome was the prevalence of depression, as evaluated by various types of self-reported depression scales.

  • Keywords: Anxiety, depression, hypothyroidism, somatization, subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroxine. We also found an insignificant difference in the composite endpoint between the L-T4 supplementation group and placebo group in SCH patients.

  • No significant difference was observed in the composite end point between the L-T4 therapy group and placebo group in SCH patients Fig.

  • In addition, the fT4 values were considered regular if they were perceived as normal by the reviewers, even though details regarding the fT4 values were not indicated.

  • Association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms in the Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

  • To avoid missing any relevant papers, we also reviewed the reference lists of key reports for related articles.

Permissions Icon Permissions. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer LHS. Endocr Rev. The funnel plot is a straightforward approach of investigating whether publication bias is present.

ALSO READ: Lose Weight Motivation Blogspot

Thyroid and adrenal axis in major depression: a subcljnical study in outpatients. Another reasonable interpretation is that many older patients with biochemical outcomes consistent with SCH would have reverted to a normal thyroid function state without L-T4 replacement. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Many of these patients are subsequently disappointed that their symptoms do not improve, which leads to overtreatment or use of nonstandard thyroid hormone preparations, with attendant risks. Results Study Selection A flow chart of the meta-analysis is shown in Figure 1. General information.

In total, articles were identified by the preliminary search of articles published by June deprrssion, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in nonpregnant adults: a summary of the evidence for the U. Depression and anxiety in different thyroid function states. Aging Neurosci.

Acknowledgments

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. A total of 21 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. We defined the primary outcome as GDS score at 12 months, adjusted for scores at baseline, age, sex, country, and starting dose of levothyroxine. Subsequently, we collected the full versions of the qualified reports.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Overt hypothyroidism is a cause of major mood disorder, including melancholia, and may result in deteriorating dementia 1. A hypothesis of thyroid-catecholamine-receptor interaction. A reappraisal using objective psychological measurement.

Psychiatry Res. A total of 21 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. However, the results are conflicting, and epidemiological articles investigating this linkage have reported inconstant results. Table 1 The characteristics of non-RCTs. Consistent with the distinct original data, we chose different effect models.

Inan animal study illustrated that the density of food to eat to lose weight list T3 was slightly lower in the SCH group than the sham group, which indicated a dysfunction in thyroid hormones in the brains of SCH rats even though their plasma thyroid hormones were in the normal range JAMA ; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Lower TSH and higher T4 levels are associated with current depressive syndrome in young adults. Bone Miner. Zhao3 and Z.

Further studies in larger populations are needed to validate the findings. X-axis: possitive values equal to the aggravation on depressive tendency. A flow chart of the meta-analysis is shown in Figure 1.

Read our editorial food to eat to lose weight list abd learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Stern AF. Age-dependent symptomatology of depression in hospitalized patients and its implications for DSM Second, our findings strongly support the routine examination of thyroid function in participants with depression in the clinic. The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Related Articles. Why are GPs treating subclinical hypothyroidism?

Depressive symptoms in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism—the effect of treatment with levothyroxine: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. The protocol of the TRUST trial subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety accepted by the relevant ethics committees and was published previously. Despite these limitations, the current meta-analysis has enhanced the statistical power by pooling the results of the studies. Many papers have investigated whether SCH promotes depression-like behaviour in rats in conjunction with slight hyper-activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis. Molecular basis of thyroid hormone-dependent brain development. Desiccated thyroid extract compared with levothyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

Protein levels of beta-catenin and activation state of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in major depression. Thyroid hormones, serotonin and mood: of synergy and significance in the adult brain. Nord J Psychiatry. Supplementary Figure 3 1.

Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at Therefore, the use of various scales for the detection and quantification of depression may be limited by methodological heterogeneity, disturbing the horizontal comparisons among different studies. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement. We here recommend the CES-D scale for future studies involved in this area 35which is generally recommended for the primary screening of depression in community care or primary care, as it has shown great sensitivity and specificity in both young and elderly populations The papers were considered qualified if they met the corresponding criteria: published data, cross-sectional study, case control report, prospective study, retrospective study, RCTs, clearance and use of a unique commercial product to perform the TSH assay, specified depressive measurement and domains, and number of depressed patients included with well-described criteria for depression. Williams MD, et al.

Thyroid function is closely associated with neuropsychological functions, including mental state and cognitive functions 1. Advanced Search. Everything feels more challenging when you're dealing with depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment.

Psychopathological and cognitive features in subclinical hypothyroidism. Efficacy of anti-leishmania therapy in visceral leishmaniasis among HIV infected patients: a systematic review with indirect comparison. Subclinical hypothyroidism SCH is not associated with metabolic derangement, cognitive impairment, depression or poor quality of life QoL in elderly subjects.

Well-being and depression in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity - a general population study. Notably, articles involving participants varying in age may affect mutual comparability. Volume Association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms in the Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PubMed Article Google Scholar.

However, a recent study 24 reported the opposite conclusion. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Subclinical hypothyroidism: psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Gender differences in depression and anxiety: the role of age.

Background

Abstract Background: Thyroid function is closely associated with neuropsychological functions, including mental state and cognitive functions. Some research has found that subclinical hypothyroidism, in which TSH levels are on the higher end of the normal range or barely above normal, may be linked to depression. The service is confidential.

Rockville MD View author publications. In a pooled analysis of 12, individuals, those with SCH had anxiegy risk of depression than euthyroid controls relative risk 2. Its relevance to affective illness. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease. The presence of heterogeneity between the trials was tested using the I 2 statistic. However, pooled analysis showed that individuals with SCH had higher risk of depression compared with euthyroid controls relative risk 2.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; Recently, a paper from New England found no significant differences in the mean alteration in the Tiredness subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety or Hypothyroid Symptoms score over a 1-year period between a placebo group and an L-T4 treatment group among older people with SCH. Thyroid hormone therapy for older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Several experts propose that the TSH upper limit is 4. X-axis: possitive values equal to the aggravation on depressive tendency.

Indeed, movement of the serum TSH distribution curve to higher levels during ordinary ageing may result in misclassification of older patients as suffering from SCH 33 Advanced Search. JAMA Neurol. Download PDF Comment. J Nerv Mental Dis.

Associated Data

Is subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly associated with depression or cognitive dysfunction? J Nerv Mental Dis. Brennan MD, et al.

Psychiatry Res. Helfand M. The literature quality evaluation was conducted by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale Finally, seven studies were eligible and included in the final quantitative analysis meta-analysis. Second, the included reports were designed as observational studies case control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies with different data collection methods retrospective and prospective.

PubMed Article Google Scholar. Repressiontwo meta-analyses failed to provide evidence supporting the association between SCH and cognitive impairment in older subjects 30 Neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH levels in combination with free thyroxine T4 levels within the reference range.

Publications

The case-control study by Yu et al. Transl Psychiatry. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at Williams MD, et al.

Accepted : 27 December Overt hypothyroidism is a cause of major mood disorder, including melancholia, and may result in deteriorating dementia 1. The results stayed robust in several subgroup analyses. Who is afraid of non-normal data?

The literature quality evaluation and depression conducted by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science literature databases were searched, without restriction of language, for publications up to August The scale is scored from zero to nine stars, and the highest score indicates the best methodological quality. Expert Opin Drug Saf. Heterogeneity among the studies was caused by different SCH diagnosis criteria and variations in the use of depression scales for assessment.

Thyroid hormones and depression: the Health in Men study. Strengths and limitations of this meta-analysis Depression anxiety analysis has four main limitations. In conclusion, ajxiety study demonstrated that depression is positively associated with SCH, suggesting that it is necessary to for clinicians to pay special attention to depression symptoms in patients with SCH. Checklists of methodological issues for review authors to consider when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews. PLoS One ;e

Disagreements were settled by consensus and the view of a third author Zhao as necessary. The NOS includes eight items regarding selection, comparability, exposure and consequence. No significant difference was observed in the composite end point between the L-T4 therapy group and placebo group in SCH patients Fig.

  • Metabolic depression: a chronic depressive subtype?

  • Dissent was resolved by consensus and the recommendation of a third observer Zhao as required. Minerva Endocrinol ;

  • Notably, articles involving participants varying in age may affect mutual comparability.

  • Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as the presence of persistently elevated TSH levels 4. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

  • We used precise methodology. Hennessey JV, Espaillat R.

  • Occup Med Oxford.

Psychiatry Res. A large proportion of patients with these disorders show psychiatric comorbidity. Shan Z, et al. Occup Med Oxford. A reappraisal using objective psychological measurement. Thyroid function within the normal range and the risk of depression: A population-based cohort study.

J Thyroid Res. Will my information be kept confidential? Peer Review reports. Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts. Panminerva Med.

Psychiatric disorders and quality of subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety in patients with hypothyroidism: A narrative review. Thyroid ; To determine the impact of the individual studies on the summary risk assessment, we performed a one-study-removed analysis by omitting one report from each rotation and re-computing the pooled estimates of the remaining studies employing the metaninf command. Recently, a large cohort study conducted by Kim et al. Psychiatry Investig.

If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. Your comment submission was successful. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SCH and depression including 1 the prevalence of depression in SCH with a sub-analysis of the geriatric cohort2 thyroid stimulating hormone TSH level among patients with depression and 3 the effect of levothyroxine therapy among patients with SCH and coexistent depression. E-mail: samuelsm ohsu. Privacy Policy. Metrics details.

Endocr Res. A biologically plausible theory is that L-T4 may exert modulatory effects on the illness via an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission, specifically by reducing the sensitivity of 5-HT1A 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A autoreceptors in the raphe area and by increasing 5-HT2 receptor sensitivity Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action. Psychopathological and cognitive features in subclinical hypothyroidism.

Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment. Asian J Psychiatr. Meta-analysis flow chart. Recently, a paper from New England found no significant differences in the mean alteration in the Tiredness score or Hypothyroid Symptoms score over a 1-year period between a placebo group and an L-T4 treatment group among older people with SCH. Front Endocrinol. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

High serum TSH levels are associated with depression in the elderly, which suggests that increased TSH could disturb the stability of 5-HT system and thereby facilitates the development of depression in SCH participants In addition, using the SMD as the endpoints, no significant effect was observed Supplementary Figure 4. Subsequently, we collected the full versions of the qualified reports.

Rodondi and an investigator-driven grant from the Velux Stiftung grant a to Dr Rodondi. Next, 79 studies were assessed for eligibility by reviewing the full-text article. X-axis: positive values equal to the aggravation on depressive tendency. Figure 3. A cutoff score of 16 was used to define clinically significant depression, a level that has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity

Sign Up. The patient and care aubclinical may attribute the and depression anxiety symptoms to the mild thyroid disorder and initiate L-T4 therapy. Both conditions are treatable, and the sooner you start getting help the sooner you'll start feeling better. Limit characters or approximately words. Patients were recruited from only 1 hospital, data regarding TSH level before the onset of depression were not available, and the study included a higher number of women than men. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation.

  • Solr Mobile Search. Given that depression is known to be associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid HPT axis [ 4 ], studies have reported its positive correlation with overt hypothyroidism [ 5 ].

  • Furthermore, several subsequent studies have investigated the role of the Wnt signalling pathway in mood diseases, such as major depression 23 and bipolar disorder

  • Some studies reported that the prevalence of depression is higher in persons with SCH than in euthyroid people, 47 while others found the risk for depression is comparable between the two population 68.

  • In such patients, neurological disturbances may stem from either the hyperthyroid state or the iatrogenic hypothyroidism that ensues from antithyroid treatment Demartini et al.

  • Prevalence and clinical correlates of subclinical hypothyroidism in first-episode drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder in a large sample of Chinese [published online November 3, ].

  • After duplicates removal, 2, studies received screening based on the title or abstract. Am J Psychiatry ; 3 —

The coexistence of SCH and depression suggests that the 2 conditions may share some clinical characteristics and associations. Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review. What Is Dopamine? Is subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly associated with depression or cognitive dysfunction?

A diagnostic meta-analysis of the patient health questionnaire-9 PHQ-9 algorithm scoring method as a screen for depression. Related articles Anxiety depression hypothyroidism somatization subclinical hypothyroidism thyroxine. Arch Med Res. In cases of overt thyroid disorder, treating psychiatric symptoms with L-T4 supplementation is well indicated.

Introduction

Two reviewers screened potential articles independently and a third reviewer made the final decision when discrepancies were found with a specific study. Williams MD, et al. However, the results are conflicting, and epidemiological articles investigating this linkage have reported inconstant results.

Many of the included articles did not re-examine the thyroid hormone levels over time. Try out Ane Labs and tell us what you think. Metabolic disease subclinical hypothyroidism SCH is closely associated with depression-like behavior both in human and animal studies, and our previous studies have identified the antidepressant effect of resveratrol RES in stressed rat model. We also observed no relationship between SCH and depression in older patients.

Second, our findings strongly support the routine examination of thyroid function in participants with depression in the clinic. The European thyroid association guidelines on diagnosis and treatment vepression endogenous subclinical hypothyroidism and depression anxiety hyperthyroidism. Effects of subclinical hypothyroidism treatment on psychiatric symptoms, muscular complaints, and quality of life. Neuropsychological function and symptoms in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of thyroxine treatment. Third, L-T4, which is the suggested treatment for hypothyroidism, may be effective in improving depressive symptoms in participants with SCH if the association between the presence of SCH and depression will be proved. PLoS One ;e

Future studies should focus on whether depression or other neuropsychological conditions could be improved by treating thyroid dysfunction and any potential mechanism. However, our study has a few limitations. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms among the elderly: a prospective cohort study. Purchase access Subscribe to JN Learning for one year. Do I need health insurance to receive this service?

Numerous studies have investigated the mechanism by which overt thyroid and depression anxiety influences physical, behavioural, and cognitive functions 9 ; however, the connection between SCH and these consequent measures has not been rigorously defined, and studies have reported contradictory outcomes 12 — Corresponding author. J Affect Disord. Thus, the overall number of cases and controls was adequately large to support the conclusion of the meta-analysis.

However, the use of levothyroxine among patients with SCH hypothyroiddism coexistent depression needs to be individualized. Endocr Pract. Am J Psychiatry ; 3 — Parsaik AK, et al. Findings from this study do reinforce the current recommendation that levothyroxine therapy should not be prescribed to reduce the risk of depressive symptoms in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, with high quality of evidence. Issue Section:. Weekly Email.

Thus, the overall number of cases and controls was adequately large to support the conclusion of the meta-analysis. Bone Miner. Jackson IM. Citations 0. Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression.

Med Care. The connection among overt thyroid dysfunction, abnormal mood, and cognitive disorder has been well documented 12. Prevalence of symptoms of depression in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Studies from Korea, the Netherlands, and Norway showed null associations between SCH and depression, while all the studies from Brazil showed significant associations.

This phenomenon may depend on the higher reactivity of 5-HT system to the decreased T4 level in elder people compared anf young individuals Recently, a large cohort study conducted by Kim et al. Journal List Transl Psychiatry v. Subclinical hypothyroidism after I-treatment of Graves' disease: a risk factor for depression? In total, articles were identified by the preliminary search of articles published by June 10, ; of these articles, were more comprehensively evaluated and 17 papers were finally selected for the meta-analysis Supplementary Figures 1. Res Synth Methods. The odds ratio OR for depressive patients was 1.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. Clinical utility of the item geriatric depression scale GDS for use with young and middle-aged adults. Notes Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ann Intern Med. Corroborating this clinical impression, a recent report from the United Kingdom showed that L-T4 is being prescribed more frequently and for more mild degrees of hypothyroidism 2.

Among these 21 studies, 8 showed significant associations between SCH and depression, while the other 13 did not show this relationship. Problems with this gland, however, can result in a thyroid imbalance that can affect the body in various ways. Peer Review reports.

Several reports have demonstrated a connection between SCH and current depressive symptoms, current major depression, and a lifetime history of major depression. Another meaningful consequence of the current meta-analysis is demonstrated by the ineffectiveness of therapy for SCH with LT4 supplementation on depression. Background: Thyroid function is closely associated with neuropsychological functions, including mental state and cognitive functions. The ratio of the adrenal gland weight to body weight, the plasma corticosterone levels, and the hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression were reduced in the RES-treated rats. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to summarize the existing information and evaluate the risk of depression in persons with SCH. Moreover, the relationship between depressive symptoms and SCH is controversial, particularly in older patients, as the prevalence of SCH increases with age.

ALSO READ: Car Warriors All Stars Lose Weight

Effects of subclinical hypothyroidism treatment on psychiatric symptoms, muscular complaints, and quality of life. Hypothyroidism and major depression: a common executive dysfunction? However, there is a lack of solid evidence in support of the use of levothyroxine therapy to improve mental health outcomes [ 27 ]. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of thyroxine replacement on cognitive function in community-living elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism: the Birmingham Elderly Thyroid study. High serum TSH levels are associated with depression in the elderly. Do I need health insurance to receive this service? Open Next post in Depression Advisor Close.

Dayan CM, Panicker V. Consistent with the distinct original data, we chose different effect models. Mental and physical complaints in thyroid disorders in the general population. Accuracy of the item geriatric depression scale GDS in a community sample of the oldest old.

Supplementary Figure 3 1. During anxity, 10 participants from the levothyroxine group 5. A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. In addition to these sensitivity analyses, there are a number of other strengths to this study, particularly the large sample size, as this is by far the largest such study to date.

Normally, the thyroid regulates various functions by releasing steady levels of thyroid hormones. Strengths and Limitation To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to verify the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression. However, it has been postulated that depression can cause inhibitory effect on type II deiodinase, which leads to the conversion of fT4 to rT3 via type III deiodinase [ 55 ]. Is subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the elderly associated with depression or cognitive dysfunction?

Cochrane Database Syst. Fourth, none of the selected reports applied age-adjusted expected limits, resulting in the unavoidable misclassification of older adults as suffering from SCH. Supplemental legends 13K, docx. Strengths and limitations of this meta-analysis This analysis has four main limitations.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?